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TAR DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is found in ubiquitinated inclusions (UBIs) in some frontotemporal dementias (FTD-U). One form of FTD-U, due to mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene, occurs with an inclusion body myopathy (IBMPFD). Since IBMPFD brain has TDP-43 in UBIs, we looked for TDP-43 inclusions in IBMPFD muscle. In normal muscle,(More)
In this paper, we study the application of the box counting method (BCM) to estimate the fractal dimension of 3D plant foliage. We use artificial crowns with known theoretical fractal dimension to characterize the accuracy of the BCM and we extend the approach to 3D digitized plants. In particular, errors are experimentally characterized for the estimated(More)
INTRODUCTION Transmission of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United Kingdom is ongoing. We explore associations between self-reported sexual behaviours and drug use with cumulative HCV prevalence, as well as new HCV diagnosis. METHODS ASTRA is a cross-sectional questionnaire study including 2,248(More)
BACKGROUND The CD4 cell count at which combination antiretroviral therapy should be started is a central, unresolved issue in the care of HIV-1-infected patients. In the absence of randomised trials, we examined this question in prospective cohort studies. METHODS We analysed data from 18 cohort studies of patients with HIV. Antiretroviral-naive patients(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has contributed greatly toward survival for people with HIV, yet many remain undiagnosed until very late. Our aims were to estimate the life expectancy of an HIV-infected MSM living in a developed country with extensive access to ART and healthcare, and to assess the effect of late diagnosis(More)
BACKGROUND Cytomegalovirus end-organ disease can be prevented by giving ganciclovir when viraemia is detected in allograft recipients. Values of viral load correlate with development of end-organ disease and are moderated by pre-existing natural immunity. Our aim was to determine whether vaccine-induced immunity could do likewise. METHODS We undertook a(More)
BACKGROUND With the advent of effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy for people with HIV is now approaching that seen in the general population. Consequently, the relative importance of other traditionally non-AIDS-related morbidities has increased. We investigated trends over time in all-cause mortality and for specific causes of death in(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA suppression <50 copies/mL is regarded as the optimal outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Current viral load (VL) assays show increased sensitivity, but the significance of RNA detection <50 copies/mL is unclear. METHODS This study investigated the virologic outcomes of(More)
AIMS The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value and to explore the prognostic value of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-TproBNP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) both with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS AND RESULTS N-TproBNP, six-minute walk distance (SMWD), haemodynamics (at right heart(More)