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AIMS The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value and to explore the prognostic value of N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (N-TproBNP) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) both with and without pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS AND RESULTS N-TproBNP, six-minute walk distance (SMWD), haemodynamics (at right heart(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has contributed greatly toward survival for people with HIV, yet many remain undiagnosed until very late. Our aims were to estimate the life expectancy of an HIV-infected MSM living in a developed country with extensive access to ART and healthcare, and to assess the effect of late diagnosis(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the characteristics and clinical, immunological and virological outcomes for individuals presenting for care with low CD4 cell counts. METHODS Individuals aged > 16 years presenting for care for the first time were identified between 1 January 1996 and 31 December 2002. Late presenters were those with CD4 cell count < 50 x 10(6)(More)
BACKGROUND Several antiretroviral agents (ARVs) are associated with chronic renal impairment, but the extent of such adverse events among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with initially normal renal function is unknown. METHODS D:A:D study participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥ 90 mL/min after 1 January(More)
BACKGROUND The CD4 cell count at which combination antiretroviral therapy should be started is a central, unresolved issue in the care of HIV-1-infected patients. In the absence of randomised trials, we examined this question in prospective cohort studies. METHODS We analysed data from 18 cohort studies of patients with HIV. Antiretroviral-naive patients(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the characteristics of deaths that occur among HIV-positive individuals in the HAART era. DESIGN Observational database. METHODS Deaths were reviewed that occurred among HIV-positive individuals seen at the Royal Free Hospital, London between January 1998 and December 2003. RESULTS Over the study period, there were 121 deaths;(More)
BACKGROUND Plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA suppression <50 copies/mL is regarded as the optimal outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Current viral load (VL) assays show increased sensitivity, but the significance of RNA detection <50 copies/mL is unclear. METHODS This study investigated the virologic outcomes of(More)
BACKGROUND We aimed to investigate the long-term virological outcomes of a cohort initially showing good responses to first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with no evidence ofvirological failure during the first year after achieving viral load (VL) undetectability (<50 copies/ml). METHODS Virological failure was defined as a confirmed VL(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide information on responses to combination antiretroviral therapy in children, adolescents and older HIV-infected persons. DESIGN AND SETTING Multicohort collaboration of 33 European cohorts. SUBJECTS : Forty-nine thousand nine hundred and twenty-one antiretroviral-naive individuals starting combination antiretroviral therapy from 1998(More)
It has been proposed that occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined as detectable HBV-DNA in serum with undetectable surface antigen (HBsAg(-)), is associated with raised transaminases in HIV-infected persons. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of occult HBV infection in two independent cohorts, and investigate its predictors,(More)