C Shoubridge

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Large-scale systematic resequencing has been proposed as the key future strategy for the discovery of rare, disease-causing sequence variants across the spectrum of human complex disease. We have sequenced the coding exons of the X chromosome in 208 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), the largest direct screen for constitutional(More)
Epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females (EFMR) is a disorder with an X-linked mode of inheritance and an unusual expression pattern. Disorders arising from mutations on the X chromosome are typically characterized by affected males and unaffected carrier females. In contrast, EFMR spares transmitting males and affects only carrier females. Aided(More)
X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) or intellectual disability (ID) is a common, clinically complex and genetically heterogeneous disease arising from many mutations along the X chromosome. It affects between 1/600-1/1000 males and a substantial number of females. Research during the past decade has identified >90 different XLMR genes, affecting a wide range(More)
The Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in a spectrum of X-chromosome phenotypes with intellectual disability (ID) as their cardinal feature. To date, close to 100 families and isolated cases have been reported to carry 44 different mutations, the majority of these (59%) being a result of polyalanine tract(More)
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is of universal biological significance. It has emerged as an important global RNA, DNA and translation regulatory pathway. By systematically sequencing 737 genes (annotated in the Vertebrate Genome Annotation database) on the human X chromosome in 250 families with X-linked mental retardation, we identified mutations in(More)
The first family identified as having a nonsyndromic intellectual disability was mapped in 1988. Here we show that a mutation of IQSEC2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the ADP-ribosylation factor family of small GTPases, caused this disorder. In addition to MRX1, IQSEC2 mutations were identified in three other families with X-linked(More)
ARX mutations cause a diverse spectrum of human disorders, ranging from severe brain and genital malformations to non-syndromic intellectual disability (ID). ARX is a transcription factor with multiple domains that include four polyalanine (pA) tracts, the first two of which are frequently expanded by mutations. We progressively screened DNA samples from(More)
Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is an important paired-type homeobox gene involved in the development of human brain. The ARX gene mutations are a significant contributor to various forms of X-chromosome-linked mental retardation with and without additional features including epilepsy, lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia, hand dystonia or autism.(More)
The Aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX) is one of the major genes causing X-linked mental retardation. We have been interested in the pathogenic mechanism of expanded polyalanine tract mutations in ARX. We showed that the c.304ins(GCG)7 mutation causing an increase from 16 to 23 alanines increased the propensity of ARX protein aggregation and a shift(More)
The discovery of mutations causing human disease has so far been biased toward protein-coding regions. Having excluded all annotated coding regions, we performed targeted massively parallel resequencing of the nonrepetitive genomic linkage interval at Xq28 of family MRX3. We identified in the binding site of transcription factor YY1 a regulatory mutation(More)