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Specific regulatory states, i.e., sets of expressed transcription factors, define the gene expression capabilities of cells in animal development. Here we explore the functional significance of an unprecedented example of regulatory state conservation from the cnidarian Nematostella to Drosophila, sea urchin, fish, and mammals. Our probe is a deeply(More)
The size and shape of organs is species specific, and even in species in which organ size is strongly influenced by environmental cues, such as nutrition or temperature, it follows defined rules. Therefore, mechanisms must exist to ensure a tight control of organ size within a given species, while being flexible enough to allow for the evolution of(More)
The visual system of insects is a multilayered structure composed externally by the compound eye and internally by the three ganglia of the optic lobe: lamina, medulla and the lobula complex. The differentiation of lamina neurons depends heavily on Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is delivered by the incoming photoreceptor axons, and occurs in a wave-like(More)
Keywords: Ant colony Two-pheromone matrices Multi-objective optimization Dispersed laminates Strength constraints Biaxial loading a b s t r a c t The objective of the present study is to find out the effect of using non-conventional fiber orientations (orientations not limited to 0°, ±45° and 90°) to improve the composite material response. The Ant Colony(More)
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