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Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We(More)
BACKGROUND Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant and adjuvant analgesic. It is effective in several pain studies. Neuropathic pain is the most difficult type of pain to treat. In this study, we examined if intrathecal gabapentin could prevent nerve injury-induced pain. METHODS Under isoflurane anaesthesia, male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) underwent right(More)
We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of sorafenib and SC-59, a novel sorafenib derivative, on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib activated autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the HCC cell lines PLC5, Sk-Hep1, HepG2 and Hep3B. Sorafenib downregulated phospho-STAT3 (P-STAT3) and subsequently reduced the(More)
Pain is associated with anxiety in a dental setting. It has remained unclear how cognitive-affective factors modulate pain and anxiety in a stressful context, such as receiving dental procedures. We hypothesized that both the situational factor (unpredictability about painful stimuli) and the trait factor (pain catastrophizing, i.e., the tendency to(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) has a critical role in promoting androgen-dependent and -independent apoptosis in testicular cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ligand-independent apoptosis, including the activity of AR in testicular stem cells, are not completely understood. In the present study, we generated induced pluripotent stem(More)
BACKGROUND Pain is a major ailment that motivates individuals to look for treatment. Despite its enormous clinical relevance, very little is known about the factors that influence our preference of an analgesic (or pain-relieving treatment). The current study investigated the influence of the information regarding the probability and the magnitude of the(More)