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Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic drug. This study aimed to evaluate brain metabolite levels and cognitive function in young children with prenatal METH exposure. 101 children ages 3-4 years were evaluated with neuropsychological tests and underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) without sedation. Complete datasets from 49(More)
More HIV-infected individuals are living longer; however, how their brain function is affected by aging is not well understood. One hundred twenty-two men (56 seronegative control [SN] subjects, 37 HIV subjects with normal cognition [HIV+NC], 29 with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder [HAND]) performed neuropsychological tests and had acceptable(More)
OBJECTIVE We aimed to evaluate the combined effects of HIV and APOE ε4 allele(s) on glial metabolite levels, and on known cognitive deficits associated with either condition, across the ages. METHODS One hundred seventy-seven participants, primarily of white and mixed race (97 seronegative subjects: aged 44.7 ± 1.3 years, 85 [87.6%] men, 28 [28.9%] APOE(More)
BACKGROUND Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse continues to be a major illicit drug of abuse. Neuroimaging findings suggest that Meth is neurotoxic and may alter various brain structures, but the effect of Meth on the aging brain has not been studied. AIM The aim was to determine regional volumes of cortical gray matter in the brains of adult Meth users versus(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether subjects with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) show altered concentrations of brain glutamate (GLU), and whether lower GLU levels correlate with cognitive deficits. MATERIALS AND METHODS GLU concentrations were measured in the basal ganglia, frontal gray and white matter, and(More)
OBJECTIVE The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele may accelerate the progression of HIV disease, and increase the risk for developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Whether APOEε4 allele(s) and age may influence brain atrophy in HIV patients is unknown and was evaluated. METHODS Automated morphometry on magnetic resonance images, using(More)
We previously reported the effects of sex and age on brain glutamate, as well as other brain metabolite concentrations, measured with a new technique called TE-averaged PRESS on a 3-T Siemens scanner in four brain regions of 50 healthy subjects. While revising the original IDL processing script for a scanner upgrade, we noted a programming error in the(More)
This study examined the differences in psychiatric symptoms between adult methamphetamine users (n = 46) and control subjects (n = 31), the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and the intensity of methamphetamine craving, and whether psychiatric symptoms were correlated to methamphetamine drug-usage variables (ie, length of abstinence, frequency,(More)
The significance of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Apolipoprotein E (APOE) level and whether it might have differential effects on brain function due to the presence of APOE ε 4 allele(s) in HIV-infected patients are unknown. However, APOE ε 4 allele has been associated with greater incidence of HIV-associated dementia and accelerated progression of HIV(More)
Many pregnant women smoke cigarettes during pregnancy, but the effect of nicotine on the developing human brain is not well understood, especially in young children. This study aims to determine the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) on brain metabolite levels in young (3–4 years old) children, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS).(More)