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The spinal trigeminal nucleus is involved in the transmission of orofacial sensory information. Neither the distribution of the neuromessenger, nitric oxide, within the trigeminal system nor the possible relationship of this simple gas with trigeminothalamic neurons has been carefully studied. Using immunocytochemical (against nitric oxide synthase) and(More)
The effects of nitrous oxide at subanesthetic doses (0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% in oxygen) on mood and psychomotor performance were determined in a group of 12 healthy volunteers (six males and six females). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover trial of five experimental sessions was used. Effects were measured before, during and after a(More)
Patients who arrive home several hours after ambulatory surgery may drink alcohol. The extent to which the residual effects of drugs used in ambulatory surgery interact with alcohol, perhaps potentiating alcohol effects, is not known. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether intravenous midazolam had residual effects that would(More)
The reinforcing, subjective, and psychomotor effects of 30 min of inhalation of 20% nitrous oxide were determined in 12 healthy volunteers using a choice paradigm with 100% oxygen as placebo. Nitrous oxide was chosen on only 22% of choice occasions, indicating that, in general, this concentration did not function as a reinforcer. Nitrous oxide produced(More)
The spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) is involved in the transmission of orofacial sensory information. Nitric oxide (NO), an important neuromessenger, and the glutamate receptor subtype, NMDA NR1, have been implicated in nociception in the STN. However, the anatomical relationship of NO and NMDA NR1 has not been investigated within this nucleus. Using both(More)
The subjective, psychomotor and reinforcing effects of nitrous oxide at subanesthetic doses (30% and 40% in oxygen) were determined in normal healthy volunteers using a choice paradigm. Thirty percent nitrous oxide was chosen no more often than oxygen (41.6% choice rate), indicating that, for most of the subjects tested, extended inhalation of this nitrous(More)
The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) NR1 glutamate receptor subtype has been proposed to play an important role in the transmission of orofacial sensory information in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). The distribution of NR1 mRNA expression in the STN and its relationship to STN projection neurons has not been investigated previously. Using neuroanatomical(More)
Patients who arrive home several hours after outpatient surgery may drink alcohol. The extent to which residual drugs used in outpatient surgery interact with alcohol is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if two i.v. drugs commonly used together in outpatient surgery, midazolam and fentanyl, have residual effects which would interact with(More)
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