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This study examined the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult cocaine users and in an aged-matched sample with no history of cocaine use. Subjects (n=22) were identified as cocaine users by testing positive for the presence of cocaine or benzoylecgonine in urine-analysis and by self-reported cocaine use. Control subjects (n=22) tested(More)
Studies of humans show that individuals with histories of cocaine abuse display reduced inhibitory control over behavioral impulses. The present study tested the effects of oral cocaine on the ability to inhibit behavior in humans. Eight adult volunteers (seven men and one woman) with a history of cocaine abuse participated as in-patient volunteers.(More)
Modafinil is indicated for the management of excessive daytime sleepiness; however, recent studies have examined a broad range of potential uses. Given that clinical uses of modafinil may be expanding, this study compared modafinil and d-amphetamine effects on subjective and performance measures. Across 11 sessions, 11 healthy adults were tested after oral(More)
The results of animal research suggest that the use of partial agonists at dopamine (DA) D2 receptors may be an effective strategy for the treatment of stimulant dependence. Aripiprazole is an atypical antipsychotic that has partial agonist activity at D2 receptors. In this experiment, seven human participants with a history of nontherapeutic stimulant use(More)
RATIONALE Methamphetamine abuse and dependence are significant public-health concerns. Behavioral therapies are effective for reducing methamphetamine use. However, many patients enrolled in behavioral therapies are unable to achieve significant periods of abstinence, suggesting other strategies like pharmacotherapy are needed. OBJECTIVES This experiment(More)
Despite increased reports of amphetamine abuse and dependence, a putative pharmacotherapy has yet to be identified. In a previous study from our laboratory, 20 mg aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic that has partial agonist activity at D(2) receptors, attenuated many of the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine. Aripiprazole (20 mg) also impaired(More)
Long-term cocaine and alcohol use is associated with neuropsychological impairments that implicate poor inhibitory mechanisms of behavioural control. This study tested acquisition and discrimination-reversal learning in a group of polydrug users (n 20) with a history of cocaine and heavy alcohol use and a group of age-matched controls (n 20). A cued go/nogo(More)
The reinforcing effects of methylphenidate (20-40 mg), d-amphetamine (10-20 mg), and placebo were assessed in eight healthy, non-sleep-deprived, non-drug-abusing outpatient volunteers. A modified progressive-ratio schedule was used to assess drug reinforcement in which a sampling session always preceded a self-administration session. During sampling(More)
AIMS This study examined dose-response effects of oral cocaine on the inhibitory control of behavior in adult cocaine users using two different behavioral models of inhibitory control. DESIGN Adults (n = 12) with a history of cocaine use performed the stop-signal and cue-dependent go-no-go task to measure inhibitory control of behavior in response to a(More)
The discriminative-stimulus and participate-rated effects of a range of doses of d-amphetamine (2.5-20 mg), methylphenidate (5-40 mg), bupropion (50-400 mg), and triazolam (0.0625-0.5 mg) were tested in 5 humans trained to discriminate between oral d-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo. d-Amphetamine and methylphenidate generally dose dependently increased(More)