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Blood glucose levels are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 is strongly induced in liver in fasting mice and in three mouse(More)
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In both disorders, tissues such as muscle, fat and liver become less responsive or resistant to insulin. This state is also linked to other common health problems, such as obesity, polycystic ovarian disease, hyperlipidaemia,(More)
Impairment of insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. To test the hypothesis that neuronal insulin resistance contributes to defects in neuronal function, we have performed a detailed analysis of brain/neuron-specific insulin receptor knockout (NIRKO) mice. We find that NIRKO mice exhibit a complete loss of(More)
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. They mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates the acetylation levels of metabolic enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthetase 2 (refs 1, 2). Mice lacking both(More)
The principal substrate for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors is the cytoplasmic protein insulin-receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1/pp185). After tyrosine phosphorylation at several sites, IRS-1 binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol-3'-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and several other proteins containing SH2 (Src-homology 2) domains. To(More)
Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The(More)
NIDDM is a polygenic disease characterized by insulin resistance in muscle, fat, and liver, followed by a failure of pancreatic beta cells to adequately compensate for this resistance despite increased insulin secretion. Mice double heterozygous for null alleles in the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 genes exhibit the expected(More)
Tyrosyl phosphorylation is implicated in the mechanism of insulin action. Mutation of the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor by substitution of tyrosyl residue 960 with phenylalanine had no effect on insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation or phosphotransferase activity of the purified receptor. However, unlike the normal receptor, this mutant was not(More)
To identify the gene or genes associated with insulin resistance in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, subtraction libraries were prepared from skeletal muscle of normal and diabetic humans and screened with subtracted probes. Only one clone out of 4000 was selectively overexpressed in Type II diabetic muscle as compared to muscle of(More)
Despite advances in metabolic and postmetabolic labeling methods for quantitative proteomics, there remains a need for improved label-free approaches. This need is particularly pressing for workflows that incorporate affinity enrichment at the peptide level, where isobaric chemical labels such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and(More)