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Blood glucose levels are maintained by the balance between glucose uptake by peripheral tissues and glucose secretion by the liver. Gluconeogenesis is strongly stimulated during fasting and is aberrantly activated in diabetes mellitus. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 is strongly induced in liver in fasting mice and in three mouse(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. In rodents and newborn humans, brown adipose tissue helps regulate energy expenditure by thermogenesis mediated by the expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but brown adipose tissue has been considered to have no physiologic relevance in adult humans. METHODS We(More)
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In both disorders, tissues such as muscle, fat and liver become less responsive or resistant to insulin. This state is also linked to other common health problems, such as obesity, polycystic ovarian disease, hyperlipidaemia,(More)
Impairment of insulin signaling in the brain has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. To test the hypothesis that neuronal insulin resistance contributes to defects in neuronal function, we have performed a detailed analysis of brain/neuron-specific insulin receptor knockout (NIRKO) mice. We find that NIRKO mice exhibit a complete loss of(More)
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases. They mediate adaptive responses to a variety of stresses, including calorie restriction and metabolic stress. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, where it regulates the acetylation levels of metabolic enzymes, including acetyl coenzyme A synthetase 2 (refs 1, 2). Mice lacking both(More)
To identify the gene or genes associated with insulin resistance in Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, subtraction libraries were prepared from skeletal muscle of normal and diabetic humans and screened with subtracted probes. Only one clone out of 4000 was selectively overexpressed in Type II diabetic muscle as compared to muscle of(More)
The development of obesity not only depends on the balance between food intake and caloric utilization but also on the balance between white adipose tissue, which is the primary site of energy storage, and brown adipose tissue, which is specialized for energy expenditure. In addition, some sites of white fat storage in the body are more closely linked than(More)
The principal substrate for the insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors is the cytoplasmic protein insulin-receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1/pp185). After tyrosine phosphorylation at several sites, IRS-1 binds to and activates phosphatidylinositol-3'-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and several other proteins containing SH2 (Src-homology 2) domains. To(More)
Insulin resistance is a pathophysiological component of type 2 diabetes and obesity and also occurs in states of stress, infection, and inflammation associated with an upregulation of cytokines. Here we show that in both obesity and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia there is an increase in suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, SOCS-1(More)
Dysfunction of the pancreatic beta cell is an important defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, although its exact relationship to the insulin resistance is unclear. To determine whether insulin signaling has a functional role in the beta cell we have used the Cre-loxP system to specifically inactivate the insulin receptor gene in the beta cells. The(More)