C . Robinault

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In 2014, a botulism outbreak in a flock of laying hens was investigated in France. In the flock of 5020 hens, clinical signs of botulism occurred at 46 weeks of age. A type C/D botulism outbreak was confirmed using the mouse lethality assay for detection of botulinum toxin in serum and a real-time PCR test to detect Clostridium botulinum in intestinal(More)
Introduction Excretion of Salmonella enterica by late-fattening pigs may cause the dissemination of this zoonotic agent in the environment during spreading of contaminated slurry (1). Slurry spreading on pastures represents a risk of contamination of animals (ruminants), but also pollution through contaminated runoff water and even pollution of leisure(More)
Excretion of Salmonella enterica by late-fattening pigs may cause the dissemination of this zoonotic agent in the environment during spreading of contaminated slurry (Suraj B. Baloda et al., 2001). Slurry spreading on pastures represents a risk of contamination of animals (ruminants), and also pollution (Baudart J. et al., 2000). Even though studies have(More)
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