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Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard(More)
Spatial normalization and segmentation of pediatric brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) data with adult templates may impose biases and limitations in pediatric neuroimaging work. To remedy this issue, we created a single database made up of a series of pediatric, age-specific MRI average brain templates. These average, age-specific templates were(More)
This study created a database of pediatric age-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain templates for normalization and segmentation. Participants included children from 4.5 through 19.5 years, totaling 823 scans from 494 subjects. Open-source processing programs (FMRIB Software Library, Statistical Parametric Mapping, Advanced Normalization Tools(More)
Cerebral cortical development involves a complex cascade of events which are difficult to visualize in intact, living subjects. In this study, we apply diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to the evaluation of cortical development in human infants ranging from 26 to 41 weeks gestational age (GA). Apparent diffusion of water in cortex is maximally anisotropic at(More)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development is a landmark study in which structural and metabolic brain development and behavior are followed longitudinally from birth to young adulthood in a population-based sample of healthy children. The neuropsychological assessment protocol for children(More)
Wnt signaling regulates hippocampal development but little is known about the functions of specific Wnt receptors in this structure. Frizzled 9 is selectively expressed in the hippocampus and is one of about 20 genes typically deleted in Williams syndrome. Since Williams syndrome is associated with severe visuospatial processing defects, we generated a(More)
PURPOSE To establish normal age-related changes in the magnetic resonance (MR) T(2) relaxation time constants of brain using data collected as part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. MATERIALS AND METHODS This multicenter study of normal brain and behavior development provides both longitudinal and(More)
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development is a landmark study in which structural and metabolic brain development and behavior are followed longitudinally from birth to young adulthood in a population-based sample of healthy children. Cross-sectional findings from the neuropsychological test(More)
Neonatal stroke leads to mortality and severe morbidity, but there currently is no effective treatment. Erythropoietin (EPO) promotes cytoprotection and neurogenesis in the short term following brain injury; however, long-term cognitive outcomes and optimal dosing regimens have not been clarified. We performed middle cerebral artery occlusion in postnatal(More)
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