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Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard(More)
PURPOSE To establish quantitative standards for the directionally averaged water apparent diffusion coefficient (D) and quantitative diffusion anisotropy (A sigma) of normal brains in newborns by using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Diffusion tensor MR imaging was performed during the first 36 hours of life in 22(More)
This study created a database of pediatric age-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain templates for normalization and segmentation. Participants included children from 4.5 through 19.5 years, totaling 823 scans from 494 subjects. Open-source processing programs (FMRIB Software Library, Statistical Parametric Mapping, Advanced Normalization Tools(More)
Cerebral cortical development involves a complex cascade of events which are difficult to visualize in intact, living subjects. In this study, we apply diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to the evaluation of cortical development in human infants ranging from 26 to 41 weeks gestational age (GA). Apparent diffusion of water in cortex is maximally anisotropic at(More)
Spatial normalization and segmentation of pediatric brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) data with adult templates may impose biases and limitations in pediatric neuroimaging work. To remedy this issue, we created a single database made up of a series of pediatric, age-specific MRI average brain templates. These average, age-specific templates were(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the maturational changes in water diffusion within central gray matter nuclei and central white matter pathways of the human brain by using diffusion-tensor magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS Retrospective analysis of normal MR examination findings in 153 subjects (age range, 1 day to 11 years) referred for(More)
The Magn. Reson. Imaging (MRI) study of normal brain development currently conducted by the Brain Development Cooperative Group represents the most extensive MRI study of brain and behavioral development from birth through young adulthood ever conducted. This multi-center project, sponsored by four Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, uses a(More)
Electrical activity (whole-nerve responses) of the chorda tympani nerve (CT) in rats at 2-110 days of age was recorded in response to chemical (0.5 M NaCl, 0.5 M LiCl, 0.5 M NH4Cl, 0.1 M citric acid) stimuli applied to the dorsal surface of the tongue. The CT of rats as young as two days of age was differentially responsive to the various chemical stimuli,(More)
Wnt signaling regulates hippocampal development but little is known about the functions of specific Wnt receptors in this structure. Frizzled 9 is selectively expressed in the hippocampus and is one of about 20 genes typically deleted in Williams syndrome. Since Williams syndrome is associated with severe visuospatial processing defects, we generated a(More)
Two regioisomers with C3 or D3 symmetry of water-soluble carboxylic acid C60 derivatives, containing three malonic acid groups per molecule, were synthesized and found to be equipotent free radical scavengers in solution as assessed by EPR analysis. Both compounds also inhibited the excitotoxic death of cultured cortical neurons induced by exposure to(More)