C. Rick Lyons

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Mycobacterium abscessus is an increasingly important cause of human disease; however, virulence determinants are largely uncharacterized. Previously, it was demonstrated that a rough, wild-type human clinical isolate (390R) causes persistent, invasive infection, while a smooth isogenic mutant (390S) has lost this capability. During serial passage of 390S, a(More)
The ability to persist in the host after the establishment of infection is an important virulence determinant for mycobacteria. Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterial species which causes a variety of clinical syndromes in humans. We have obtained a rough, wild-type human clinical isolate of M. abscessus (M. abscessus-R) and a smooth,(More)
Pneumonic tularemia caused by inhalation of the type A strains of Francisella tularensis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in humans. The only vaccine known to protect humans against this disease is the attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS), but it is not currently registered for human use. To develop a new generation of vaccines, multiple(More)
Autophagy is a cell biological pathway affecting immune responses. In vitro, autophagy acts as a cell-autonomous defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its role in vivo is unknown. Here we show that autophagy plays a dual role against tuberculosis: antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. M. tuberculosis infection of Atg5(fl/fl) LysM-Cre(+) mice(More)
The inhalation of Francisella tularensis biovar A causes pneumonic tularemia associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in humans. Exposure to F. tularensis usually occurs by accident, but there is increasing awareness that F. tularensis may be deliberately released in an act of bioterrorism or war. The development of a vaccine against pneumonic(More)
Bacillus anthracis is surrounded by an antiphagocytic polypeptide capsule composed of poly gamma-D-glutamic acid (gammaDPGA). gammaDPGA has been identified recently as a potential target for vaccine development. Studies of the role of gammaDPGA in disease have been hampered by the poor Ab response to this antigen and the lack of immunochemical reagents. As(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, produces at least three primary virulence factors: lethal toxin, edema toxin, and a capsule. The capsule is absolutely required for dissemination and lethality in a murine model of inhalation anthrax, yet the roles for the toxins during infection are ill-defined. We show in a murine model that when spores(More)
Nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a hallmark of human asthma. Both airway eosinophilia and high serum levels of total and antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) are associated with AHR. It is unclear, however, whether either eosinophilia or increased IgE levels contribute directly to, or predict, the development of AHR. Investigations(More)
To examine whether genetic immunization with Sin Nombre (SN) hantavirus genes could elicit immune responses, nine fragments spanning the envelope glycoprotein genes G1 and G2, and the complete N gene were cloned into a CMV expression vector. To ensure representation of all potential epitopes, adjacent fragments of the glycoprotein genes overlapped one(More)