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The ability to persist in the host after the establishment of infection is an important virulence determinant for mycobacteria. Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterial species which causes a variety of clinical syndromes in humans. We have obtained a rough, wild-type human clinical isolate of M. abscessus (M. abscessus-R) and a smooth,(More)
Bioweapons are most often designed for delivery to the lung, although this route is not the usual portal of entry for many of the pathogens in the natural environment. Vaccines and therapeutics that are efficacious for natural routes of infection may not be effective against the pulmonary route. Pulmonary models are needed to investigate the importance of(More)
Mycobacterium abscessus is an increasingly important cause of human disease; however, virulence determinants are largely uncharacterized. Previously, it was demonstrated that a rough, wild-type human clinical isolate (390R) causes persistent, invasive infection, while a smooth isogenic mutant (390S) has lost this capability. During serial passage of 390S, a(More)
The inhalation of Francisella tularensis biovar A causes pneumonic tularemia associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in humans. Exposure to F. tularensis usually occurs by accident, but there is increasing awareness that F. tularensis may be deliberately released in an act of bioterrorism or war. The development of a vaccine against pneumonic(More)
We have developed a model of cutaneous herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) reactivation in SKH-1 hairless mice which closely mimics the condition in humans. Sixty plaque-forming units of HSV-1 strain 17 syn+ were applied to a superficially abraded area on the lateral body wall. More than 85% of mice developed primary HSV-1 infection characterized by a(More)
Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, produces at least three primary virulence factors: lethal toxin, edema toxin, and a capsule. The capsule is absolutely required for dissemination and lethality in a murine model of inhalation anthrax, yet the roles for the toxins during infection are ill-defined. We show in a murine model that when spores(More)
In the current study, we examined the regulatory interactions of a serine/threonine phosphatase (BA-Stp1), serine/threonine kinase (BA-Stk1) pair in Bacillus anthracis. B. anthracis STPK101, a null mutant lacking BA-Stp1 and BA-Stk1, was impaired in its ability to survive within macrophages, and this correlated with an observed reduction in virulence in a(More)
Autophagy is a cell biological pathway affecting immune responses. In vitro, autophagy acts as a cell-autonomous defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its role in vivo is unknown. Here we show that autophagy plays a dual role against tuberculosis: antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. M. tuberculosis infection of Atg5(fl/fl) LysM-Cre(+) mice(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that T cell-dependent, interferon gamma (IFN gamma)-induced activation of murine macrophages and nitric oxide (NO) production plays an important role in host defenses against many microorganisms. A role for this mechanism in pulmonary defenses against infectious agents has not been examined. Previous studies demonstrated that(More)