C. Rick Lyons

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A fundamental problem in DNA microarray analysis is the lack of a common standard to compare the expression levels of different samples. Several normalization protocols have been proposed to overcome variables inherent in this technology. As yet, there are no satisfactory methods to exchange gene expression data among different research groups or to compare(More)
Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt), leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia(More)
BACKGROUND The pathogenesis of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has been primarily characterized in mice. However, the high degree of sensitivity of mice to bacterial challenge, especially with the human virulent strains of F. tularensis, limits this animal model for screening of defined attenuated vaccine candidates for protection(More)
In vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) is an immuno-screening technique that identifies bacterial antigens expressed during infection and not during standard in vitro culturing conditions. We applied IVIAT to Bacillus anthracis and identified PagA, seven members of a N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase autolysin family, three P60 family lipoproteins, two(More)
UNLABELLED Detection of microbial antigens in clinical samples can lead to rapid diagnosis of an infection and administration of appropriate therapeutics. A major barrier in diagnostics development is determining which of the potentially hundreds or thousands of antigens produced by a microbe are actually present in patient samples in detectable amounts(More)
Our objective was to determine whether the degree of variability associated with dermal microdialysis allows its practical application to determinations of bioequivalence of topically applied agents with a reasonable number of subjects. A statistical review of literature data was conducted to estimate the variances associated with subject-to-subject(More)
BACKGROUND The resolution of inflammatory responses in the lung has not been described in detail and the role of specific cytokines influencing the resolution process is largely unknown. METHODS The present study was designed to describe the resolution of inflammation from 3 h through 90 d following an acute injury by a single intratracheal instillation(More)
Ideally biosignatures can be detected at the early infection phase and used both for developing diagnostic patterns and for prognostic triage. Such biosignatures are important for vaccine validation and to provide risk stratification to a population such as for the identification of individuals who are exposed to biological or chemical agents and who are at(More)
Bacterial capsules are common targets for antibody-mediated immunity. The capsule of Bacillus anthracis is unusual among capsules because it is composed of a polymer of poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (γdPGA). We previously generated murine IgG3 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to γdPGA that were protective in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax. IgG3 antibodies are(More)
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