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Density-functional theory (DFT) for electrons at finite temperature is increasingly important in condensed matter and chemistry. The exact conditions that have proven crucial in constraining and constructing accurate approximations for ground-state DFT are generalized to finite temperature, including the adiabatic connection formula. We discuss consequences(More)
The discontinuous character of the exact-exchange-correlation (xc) energy functional of density functional theory is shown to arise naturally in the subband spectra of semiconductor quantum wells. Using an ab initio xc functional, including exchange exactly and correlation in an exact partial way, a discontinuity appears in the xc potential, each time a(More)
A recently developed quasi two-dimensional exact-exchange formalism within the framework of Density Functional Theory has been applied to a strongly inhomogeneous interacting electron gas, and the results were compared with state-of-the-art Variational Quantum Monte Carlo (VMC) numerical simulations for a three-dimensional electron gas under a strong(More)
Explicitly orbital-dependent approximations to the exchange-correlation energy functional of density functional theory typically not only depend on the single-particle Kohn-Sham orbitals but also on their occupation numbers in the ground-state Slater determinant. The variational calculation of the corresponding exchange-correlation potentials with the(More)
The Becke-Johnson exchange potential [A. D. Becke and E. R. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 221101 (2006)] has been successfully used in electronic structure calculations within density-functional theory. However, in its original form, the potential may dramatically fail in systems with non-Coulombic external potentials, or in the presence of external magnetic(More)
The behavior of the surface barrier that forms at the metal-vacuum interface is important for several fields of surface science. Within the density functional theory framework, this surface barrier has two nontrivial components: exchange and correlation. Exact results are provided for the exchange component, for a jellium metal-vacuum interface, in a slab(More)
Bounds on the exchange-correlation energy of many-electron systems are derived and tested. By using universal scaling properties of the electron-electron interaction, we obtain the exponent of the bounds in three, two, one, and quasione dimensions. From the properties of the electron gas in the dilute regime, the tightest estimate to date is given for the(More)
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