C. R. Andres

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A large French family including members affected by nonspecific X-linked mental retardation, with or without autism or pervasive developmental disorder in affected male patients, has been found to have a 2-base-pair deletion in the Neuroligin 4 gene (NLGN4) located at Xp22.33. This mutation leads to a premature stop codon in the middle of the sequence of(More)
Environmental challenges during the prenatal period can result in behavioral abnormalities and cognitive deficits that appear later in life such as autism. Prenatal exposure to valproic acid, ethanol, thalidomide and misoprostol has been shown to be associated with an increased incidence of autism. In addition, rodents exposed in utero to some of these(More)
CONTEXT Results of comparative genomic hybridization studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the cause of mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES To provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent or overlapping CNVs in 3 different groups of(More)
In order to explore whether some aspects of the autistic phenotype could be related to impairment of the serotonergic system, we chose an animal model which mimics a potential cause of autism, i.e. rats exposed to valproate (VPA) on the 9th embryonic day (E9). Previous studies have suggested that VPA exposure in rats at E9 caused a dramatic shift in the(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzymes (E2) are key enzymes in ubiquitination or Ub-like modifications of proteins. We searched for all proteins belonging to the E2 enzyme super-family in seven species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana) to(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogenic mutations in the X-linked Neuroligin 4 gene (NLGN4X) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or mental retardation (MR) are rare. However, nothing is known regarding a possible altered expression level of NLGN4X that would be caused by mutations in regulatory sequences. We investigated this issue by analyzing these regions in patients(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. During the course of the illness, malnutrition can occur and may shorten survival. The aim of our study was to determine whether clinical nutritional parameters that are used in daily practice are associated with prognosis and whether they can help guide therapeutic(More)
The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains unknown in the majority of cases. Homozygous SMN1 (survival motor neuron) gene deletion causes spinal muscular atrophy, and SMN2 gene deletions are possible risk factors in lower motor neuron disease. We studied SMN1 and SMN2 genes copy numbers in 167 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and in 167(More)
The oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed by neurons and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the precise function of OMgp is yet to be determined in vivo, recent in vitro studies suggested roles for this protein in both the developing and adult central nervous(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the angiogenin gene, ANG, have been associated recently with familial and sporadic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that link ANG, a multidomain protein, to ALS are still unknown. OBJECTIVE To assess the frequency of ANG gene mutations in 855 French patients with sporadic(More)