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CONTEXT Results of comparative genomic hybridization studies have suggested that rare copy number variations (CNVs) at numerous loci are involved in the cause of mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES To provide an estimate of the collective frequency of a set of recurrent or overlapping CNVs in 3 different groups of(More)
Despite growing evidences of an association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and antidepressant effects, the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression is challenged by the paucity of direct links between BDNF deficit and depressive-like behaviors. The unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) paradigm might take our understanding a step further(More)
Autistic disorder is a behavioural syndrome beginning before the age of 3 years and lasting over the whole lifetime. It is characterised by impaired communication, impaired social interactions, and repetitive interests and behaviour. The prevalence is about 7/10,000 taking a restrictive definition and more than 1/500 with a broader definition, including all(More)
OBJECTIVE Autism is a complex, largely genetic psychiatric disorder. In the majority of cases, the cause of autism is not known, but there is strong evidence for a genetic etiology. To identify candidate genes, the physical mapping of balanced chromosomal aberrations is a powerful strategy, since several genes have been characterized in numerous disorders.(More)
A large French family including members affected by nonspecific X-linked mental retardation, with or without autism or pervasive developmental disorder in affected male patients, has been found to have a 2-base-pair deletion in the Neuroligin 4 gene (NLGN4) located at Xp22.33. This mutation leads to a premature stop codon in the middle of the sequence of(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogenic mutations in the X-linked Neuroligin 4 gene (NLGN4X) in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and/or mental retardation (MR) are rare. However, nothing is known regarding a possible altered expression level of NLGN4X that would be caused by mutations in regulatory sequences. We investigated this issue by analyzing these regions in patients(More)
BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. During the course of the illness, malnutrition can occur and may shorten survival. The aim of our study was to determine whether clinical nutritional parameters that are used in daily practice are associated with prognosis and whether they can help guide therapeutic(More)
The covalent attachment of SUMO proteins (small ubiquitin-like modifier) to specific proteins or SUMOylation regulates their functional properties in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons. Recent studies reported dysfunction of the SUMO pathway in molecular and cellular abnormalities associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Furthermore, several(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzymes (E2) are key enzymes in ubiquitination or Ub-like modifications of proteins. We searched for all proteins belonging to the E2 enzyme super-family in seven species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana) to(More)
BACKGROUND Mental deficiency has been linked to abnormalities in cortical neuronal network connectivity and plasticity. These mechanisms are in part under the control of two interacting signalling pathways, the serotonergic and the brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) pathways. The aim of the current paper is to determine whether particular alleles or(More)