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Hippocampal organotypic slice cultures maintained 10-20 days in vitro express a high level of the polysialylated embryonic form of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (PSA-NCAM). Treatment of the cultures with endoneuraminidase-N selectively removed polysialic acid (PSA) from NCAM and completely prevented induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and(More)
TRAF6 is a signal transducer that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) and Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) in response to pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). IKK activation by TRAF6 requires two intermediary factors, TRAF6-regulated IKK activator 1 (TRIKA1) and TRIKA2 (ref. 5). TRIKA1 is a dimeric(More)
Both acute and chronic administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine and dizocilpine have been proposed to mimic some of the symptoms of schizophrenia. The purposes of the present study were first, to characterize the long-term behavioral and neurodegenerative effects of subchronic administration of phencyclidine(More)
Sex-typed cognitive abilities were assessed in 33 hypogonadal men receiving testosterone replacement therapy, 10 eugonadal men receiving testosterone in a male contraceptive clinical trial, and 19 eugonadal men not administered testosterone. Prior to and following hormone administration, men completed four tests measuring visuospatial ability, three tests(More)
Multiple forms of phospholipase D (PLD) were activated in response to wounding, and the expressions of PLDalpha, PLDbeta, and PLDgamma differed in wounded Arabidopsis leaves. Antisense abrogation of the common plant PLD, PLDalpha, decreased the wound induction of phosphatidic acid, jasmonic acid (JA), and a JA-regulated gene for vegetative storage protein.(More)
It has been generally assumed that the cell body (soma) of a neuron, which contains the nucleus, is mainly responsible for synthesis of macromolecules and has a limited role in cell-to-cell communication. Using sniffer patch recordings, we show here that electrical stimulation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons elicits robust vesicular ATP release from(More)
Heterogeneity within the autism diagnosis obscures the genetic basis of the disorder and impedes our ability to develop effective treatments. We found that by using two readily available tests, autism can be divided into two subgroups, "essential autism" and "complex autism," with different outcomes and recurrence risks. Complex autism consists of(More)
Infection by human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is typified by the progressive depletion of CD4 T lymphocytes and deterioration of immune function in most patients. A central unresolved issue in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pathogenesis is the mechanism underlying this T cell depletion. HIV-1 Tat protein was shown to induce cell death(More)
This report examines the distribution of an RNA polymerase I transcription factor (upstream binding factor; UBF), pre-rRNA processing factors (nucleolin and fibrillarin), and pre-rRNAs throughout mitosis and postmitotic nucleologenesis in HeLa cells. The results demonstrate that nucleolin, fibrillarin, and pre-rRNAs synthesized at G2/M phase of the previous(More)