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The inducible expression of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a presumed antiherbivore enzyme, was examined in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides). Following mechanical wounding simulating insect damage, PPO activity increased dramatically in wounded and unwounded leaves on wounded plants beginning at 24 and 48 h, respectively. A hybrid poplar(More)
Three Kunitz trypsin inhibitor genes were isolated from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) by PCR and cDNA screening. Based on sequence similarity, they were grouped into two classes. Southern blots showed complex banding patterns and a high level of restriction fragment polymorphism between different aspen genotypes, suggesting that these trypsin(More)
In order to functionally analyze the predicted defensive role of leaf polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.10.3.1) in Populus, transgenic hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. alba) plants overexpressing a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) PtdPPO1 gene were constructed. Regenerated transgenic plants showed high PPO enzyme activity, PtdPPO1 mRNA(More)
Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are widely distributed and well-studied oxidative enzymes, and their effects on discoloration in damaged and diseased plant tissues have been known for many years. The discovery in C.A. Ryan's laboratory in the mid-1990s that tomato PPO is induced by the herbivore defense signals systemin and jasmonate, together with seminal(More)
Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To(More)
We investigated the functional and biochemical variability of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) genes of Populus trichocarpa x Populus deltoides. Phylogenetic analysis, expressed sequence tag databases, and western-blot analysis confirmed that these genes belong to a large and diverse gene family with complex expression patterns. Five wound- and(More)
The transcriptional response of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) to poplar leaf rust (Melampsora medusae) infection was studied using the Populus 15.5K cDNA microarray. Pronounced changes in the transcriptome were observed, with approximately 20% of genes on the array showing either induction or repression of transcription within the 9-day(More)
As part of an ongoing effort to identify genes involved in poplar defense responses, and to provide a resource for comparative analysis of woody and non-woody plant defense, we generated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a library constructed from systemically wounded leaves of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides). Partial sequences were(More)
In order to characterize defense responses of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpax P. deltoides), we profiled leaf transcript patterns elicited by wounding and by regurgitant from forest tent caterpillar (FTC; Malacosoma disstria), a Lepidopteran defoliator of poplars. Macroarrays were used to compare transcript profiles. Both FTC-regurgitant (FTC-R) and(More)