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Sox9 is a transcription factor required for cartilage formation and testis determination in mammals. We have cloned from zebrafish two sox9 genes, termed sox9a and sox9b. Gene phylogenies showed that both genes are orthologous to tetrapod SOX9 genes. Genetic mapping showed that these two loci reside on chromosome segments that were apparently duplicated in(More)
Transcription initiation by eukaryotic RNA polymerase (Pol) III relies on the TFIIE-related subcomplex C82/34/31. Here we combine cross-linking and hydroxyl radical probing to position the C82/34/31 subcomplex around the Pol III active center cleft. The extended winged helix (WH) domains 1 and 4 of C82 localize to the polymerase domains clamp head and clamp(More)
BACKGROUND Persistent infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic phasic necroinflammation and regenerative proliferation in the liver. The sustained hepatocellular proliferation may render chronic HBV carriers more susceptible to the effects of environmental carcinogens. Aromatic amines are potential hepatocarcinogens in humans.(More)
The CYP11A1 gene encodes P450scc (cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme), which catalyzes the first step for the synthesis of steroids. Expression of CYP11A1 is controlled by transcription factor SF-1 (steroidogenic factor 1). Two functional SF-1-binding sites, P and U, located at -40 and -1,600 regions of the CYP11A1 gene, have been identified, but their(More)
Evolutionary origin of muscle is a central question when discussing mesoderm evolution. Developmental mechanisms underlying somatic muscle development have mostly been studied in vertebrates and fly where multiple signals and hierarchic genetic regulatory cascades selectively specify myoblasts from a pool of naive mesodermal progenitors. However, due to the(More)
The energy stored in the RHIC beam is about 200 kJ per ring at design energy and intensity. To prevent quenching of the superconducting magnets or material damage, the beam will be safely disposed of by an internal beam abort system, which includes the kicker magnets, the pulsed power supplies, and the dump absorber. Disposal of heavy ions, such as gold,(More)
Two ac dipoles with vertical and horizontal magnetic field have been proposed at RHIC for applications in linear and non-linear beam dynamics and spin manipulations. A magnetic field amplitude of 380 Gm is required to produce a coherent oscillation of 5 times the rms beam size at the top energy. We take the ac dipole frequency to be 1.0% of the revolution(More)
A US-Japan collaboration for the high energy physics experiment DeeMe requires a multi GVA high deflection strength fast kicker system. A set of high current, high voltage and high power generators are going to drive a series of kicker magnets to deflect passing beam. Brookhaven researchers have been invited to conduct a conceptual design study for this(More)
Hypoxia signaling is an ancient pathway by which animals can respond to low oxygen. Malfunction of this pathway disturbs hypoxic acclimation and can result in various diseases, including cancers. The role of hypoxia signaling in early embryogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that in the blastula of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus,(More)
Inductive voltage adder topology has attracted great attentions in pulse power community for near two decades. However, there has been lack of literatures on inductive voltage adder network analysis and circuit design model. We have recently developed a simplified model and a set of simple formulas. An expanded model and more detailed analysis are presented(More)