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The halophile Vibrio vulnificus is an etiologic agent of human mortality from seafood-borne infections. We applied whole-genome sequencing and comparative analysis to investigate the evolution of this pathogen. The genome of biotype 1 strain, V. vulnificus YJ016, was sequenced and includes two chromosomes of estimated 3377 kbp and 1857 kbp in size, and a(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium causing serious septicemia and wound infection in humans. It produces an RTX toxin that can lyse a variety of cells and is important for virulence in mice. In this study, we explored the role of RTX in pathogenesis by characterizing an RTX-deficient mutant. This mutant showed an ∼2-log reduction in virulence for mice(More)
Previous work suggested that a metalloprotease, Vvp, may be a virulence factor of Vibrio vulnificus, which causes severe wound infection and septicemia in humans. To determine the role of Vvp in pathogenesis, we isolated an isogenic protease-deficient (PD) mutant of Vibrio vulnificus by in vivo allelic exchange. This PD mutant was as virulent as its(More)
We isolated a Vibrio vulnificus mutant that was deficient in both metalloprotease and cytolysin by allelic exchange. The virulence of this mutant in mice and its cytotoxicity for HEp-2 cells were comparable to those of the wild-type strain, indicating that neither factor was essential for these properties. The cytolysin, but not the protease, seemed to be(More)
Cytotoxicity is an important virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Vibrio vulnificus, and two cytotoxins, RTX (encoded by rtxA1) and cytolysin/hemolysin (encoded by vvhA), have been identified in this organism. We showed that the quorum-sensing regulator LuxO controlled the cytotoxicity of this organism: a ΔluxO mutant exhibited low cytotoxicity,(More)
Expression of the Vibrio vulnificus metalloprotease gene, vvp, was turned up rapidly when bacterial growth reached the late log phase. A similar pattern of expression has been found in the metalloprotease gene of Vibrio cholerae, and this has been shown to be regulated by a Vibrio harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional activator. To find out whether a LuxR(More)
The biotin operon of Erwinia herbicola Eho 10 was cloned and characterized by complementation of E. coli biotin mutants. The operon was found to contain five genes arranged in the order, bioABFCD. The nucleotide sequences of bioF (7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid synthetase), bioC and bioD (dethiobiotin synthetase) were determined and analyzed. The nucleotide(More)
We have cloned a nuclease gene, vvn, from Vibrio vulnificus, an estuarine bacterium that causes wound infections and septicemia in humans and eels. The gene contained a 696-bp open reading frame encoding 232 amino acids (aa), including a signal sequence of 18 aa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature nuclease predicted a molecular mass of 25 kDa,(More)
As an anticancer drug, 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC) has been widely used to treat various cancers. To investigate the effect of 5-AzaC on mouse oocytes cultured in vitro, we have performed morphological and molecular biology studies to examine the behavior of chromosomes and oocyte development. In 5-AzaC-treated oocytes, chromosomes were decondensed and unstable.(More)