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A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methodologies (Bacteria and Archaea 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses) was used to determine the microbial diversity present within a geographically distinct high Arctic permafrost sample. Culturable Bacteria isolates, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, belonged to the phyla Firmicutes,(More)
September 2004 | Volume 2 | Issue 9 | e302 I need a “tricorder”—the convenient, hand-held device featured on Star Trek that can detect life forms even from orbit. Unfortunately, we don’t have a clue how a tricorder might work, since life forms don’t seem to have any observable property that distinguishes them from inanimate matter. Furthermore, we lack a(More)
Using adaptive optics on the W.M. Keck II telescope we imaged Titan several times during 1999 to 2001 in narrowband near-infrared filters selected to probe Titan’s stratosphere and upper troposphere. We observed a bright feature around the south pole, possibly a collar of haze or clouds. Further, we find that solar phase angle explains most of the observed(More)
[1] Lake Vostok is a large lake located 4 km beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet that should be supersaturated with dissolved gases in equilibrium with clathrate present in the water column. Here we show that if the age of the lake is such that the lake water mass has been cycled over 30 times then the total dissolved gas equilibrates at about 2.5 liters(More)
P. H. Smith, L. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. Catling, B. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, P. Gunnlaugsson, M. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. Hviid, H. Keller, S. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. Lemmon, M. Madsen, M. Malin, W. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. McKay, M. Mellon, D. Michelangeli, D. Ming, R.(More)
BACKGROUND With the introduction of electronic records, some nurses have expressed concern about the length of time they spend inputting data on computers. AIM To explore mental health nurses' views about computer use when engaging with patients in care planning, and to investigate how electronic records contribute to improving service user involvement(More)
In this review, we discuss the current state of standoff Raman spectroscopy as it applies to remote planetary applications, including standoff instrumentation, the technique's ability to identify biologically and geologically important analytes, and the feasibility to make standoff Raman measurements under various planetary conditions. This is not intended(More)
LORAX is a robotic mission to characterize the distribution of microbes in Antarctica’s ice sheets. Robotic platform requirements include navigational autonomy and clean, sustainable power systems to operate unattended for a month without introducing contamination that would affect the results. This paper details the LORAX investigation, the navigational(More)
In response to the growing importance of space exploration in future planning, the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration (PEX) was chartered to provide independent scientific advice to support the development of exploration programs and to safeguard the potential scientific assets of solar system objects. In this report, PEX elaborates a(More)
LIFE. C. P. McKay, C. R. Stoker, B. J. Glass, A. I. Davé, A. F. Davila, J. L. Heldmann, M. M. Marinova, A. G. Fairen, R. C. Quinn, K. A. Zacny, G. Paulsen, P. H. Smith, V. Parro, D. T. Andersen, M. H. Hecht, D. Lacelle, W. H. Pollard, R. Warwick, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field CA 94035, Lockheed Martin, SETI Institute, Bay Area Environmental(More)