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S-Carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (CMC) is used both as an orally administered mucolytic agent and as a probe drug for uncovering polymorphic sulfoxidation of other sulfur-containing drugs in humans. However, several recent studies could not confirm the formation of significant amounts of urinary sulfoxides of CMC or its decarboxylation product(More)
Putrescine, spermidine, and spermine levels were measured in the cortex, caudoputamen, and hippocampus of rats during 30 min of severe forebrain ischemia (induced by occlusion of both carotid and vertebral arteries) and subsequent recirculation. During ischemia, polyamine levels did not change significantly. During postischemic recirculation, however,(More)
1. The metabolism of (-)-sparteine and (+)-sparteine (pachycarpine) was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry, and 13C- and 2H-n.m.r. spectroscopy. The structure of the major metabolite of (-)-sparteine was confirmed to be 2,3-didehydrosparteine by g.l.c.-mass spectrometry after alkaline sample work-up. 2H-n.m.r. spectroscopy(More)
The continuous isotope feeding method of Crouse and Grundy (1978. J. Lipid Res. 19: 967-971) for measurement of dietary cholesterol absorption has been modified by using markers labeled with stable isotopes ([2,2,4,4,6-2H5]cholesterol or [25,26,26,26,27,27,27-2H4]cholesterol or [26,26,26,27,27,27-2H6] cholesterol and [5,6,22,23-2H4]sitostanol) quantified by(More)
Many drugs are used as racemates, and the enantiomers may differ in terms of pharmacological properties and disposition. Stereoselective disposition of the enantiomers can arise from metabolism of the enantiomers via different routes catalyzed by different enzymes. In contrast, the enantiomers may be metabolized by the same enzyme at different rates. In the(More)
Pronounced differences in the CYP2D6 gene between Chinese and Caucasians have previously been described. There was a low frequency of detrimental mutations in the Chinese CYP2D6 gene causing the poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype. In contrast to Caucasians where the Xba I 44 kb allele is almost always associated with the PM phenotype, Chinese with the 44/44 kb(More)
Thirty ml of an emulsion containing 3 g of trieicosapentaenoyl-glycerol (90% pure, containing 5% arachidonic acid (AA)) was infused intravenously in 2 male healthy volunteers. Urine samples were collected for 24 h before and 48 h after the infusion in 5 periods. Urinary metabolites of prostaglandin (PG) I2/3 and thromboxane (TX) A2/3 (PGI2/3-M and TXB2/3-M,(More)
Two different reaction mechanisms for the formation of the two human enamine-structured sparteine metabolites by cytochrome P450 2D6 have been discussed in the literature. These mechanisms are either initial one-electron oxidation of N1 of sparteine followed by deprotonation of the aminium radical cation, resulting in the formation of different carbon(More)
The chemical syntheses of human metabolites of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (3) and S-methyl-L-cysteine (12) are described. The additional preparation of some 2H- and 13C-labelled isotopomers enabled the direct evaluation of the stabilities of 3 and 12 under physiological conditions and also facilitated the unambiguous assignments of the signals in the(More)
It has been claimed that the amino acid derivative carbocisteine is predominantly metabolized by sulfoxidation and that this pathway exhibits a genetic polymorphism. Moreover, those subjects with a 'poor metabolizer' phenotype have been thought to have a genetic predisposition to developing certain diseases. We have confirmed the observations of others that(More)