A kinematic study allowed to define the three most propulsive positions during a butterfly swimming cycle, which were: the end of the external sweep, the end of the internal sweep and the end of thrust. These instantaneous positions were different for the ex-world champion Pankratov when compared to another swimmer. Using manikins and a drag-measuring… (More)
In summary, there are two sources of quantum noise: spontaneous currents and vacuum fluctuations. Together, they account for the stability of the atomic ground state, spontaneous emission, shot noise and optical noise in lasers and amplifiers.