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BACKGROUND Susceptibility to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among HIV-infected Americans of African ancestral heritage has been attributed to APOL1 genetic variation. We determined the frequency of the APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants together with the prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Population-based epidemiological surveys in several countries have shown approximately 10- to 15-fold increased susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) for populations of recent African ancestry. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether a similar or different pattern of susceptibility was evident(More)
BACKGROUND A positive autologous serum skin test (ASST) is considered to reflect the presence of anti-FceRI and/or anti-IgE autoantibodies that are capable of activating mast and basophil cell degranulation. The ASST is regarded as a reliable in vivo test in chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) patients, with diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic(More)
In the repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma, when every player has a different discount factor, the grim-trigger strategy is an equilibrium if and only if the discount factor of each player is higher than some threshold. What happens if the players have incomplete information regarding the discount factors? In this work we look at repeated games in which each player(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Recently, with the emergence of highly effective antiretroviral treatment (ART), chronic liver disease has become the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in co-infected HIV-HCV (Human immunodeficiency virus-Hepatitis C virus) patients. The overall SVR rate in this population remains unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to(More)
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