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The presence and activation of phenoloxidase in the blood of Ciona intestinalis and other ascidians was investigated in vitro. In C. intestinalis, phenoloxidase was found to exist in the cells as a proenzyme and to be activated by proteases. The microbial carbohydrates, LPS or laminarin, also enhanced enzyme activity but a similar effect was not achieved(More)
In vitro model cell systems are important tools for studying mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells. In our study, the human thyroid epithelial cell line HTori-3 was analyzed cytogenetically following exposure to different doses of alpha- and gamma-irradiation and subsequent tumor formation in athymic nude mice.(More)
The proliferative responses of the cytotoxic blood cell population of the solitary ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, were investigated by autoradiography and tritiated thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation following treatment with mitogens or co-culture with allogeneic cells in vitro. A small number of mitotic figures were seen in untreated circulating blood cells(More)
Blood cell-mediated cytotoxic activity against mammalian target cells by the hemocytes of the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis was investigated in vitro by fluorochromasia. Salt-conditioned target cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate and challenged with mixed and separated hemocytes. The assay provided optimal conditions for the(More)
Neoplastic transformation of human epithelial cells by radiation has previously been investigated using cell lines immortalized with viral vectors. There are disadvantages to this approach, and we report here the results of studies using a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (340RPE-T53) immortalized by treatment with telomerase. After exposure of(More)
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