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OBJECTIVE Daily adult human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been estimated at <1 µg/kg, with virtually complete first-pass conjugation in the liver in primates but not in mice. We measured unconjugated and conjugated BPA levels in serum from adult female rhesus monkeys and adult female mice after oral administration of BPA and compared findings in mice(More)
The transepithelial intestinal elimination of ivermectin was studied using the intestinal closed-loop model in the rat. The common bile duct was cannulated, and duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were isolated in situ with their intact blood supplies. Following administration of 100, 200, or 400 microg/kg b.wt. ivermectin via the carotid artery, the elimination(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study is to define and illustrate metrics for the external evaluation of a population model. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this paper, several types of metrics are defined: based on observations (standardized prediction error with or without simulation and normalized prediction distribution error); based on hyperparameters (with or(More)
Model evaluation is an important issue in population analyses. We aimed to perform a systematic review of all population pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic analyses published between 2002 and 2004 to survey the current methods used to evaluate models and to assess whether those models were adequately evaluated. We selected 324 articles in MEDLINE using(More)
Pharmacogenetics is now widely investigated and health institutions acknowledge its place in clinical pharmacokinetics. Our objective is to assess through a simulation study, the impact of design on the statistical performances of three different tests used for analysis of pharmacogenetic information with nonlinear mixed effects models: (i) an ANOVA to test(More)
AIMS A descriptive survey of published population pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analyses from 2002 to 2004 was conducted and an evaluation made of how model building was performed and reported. METHODS We selected 324 articles in Pubmed using defined keywords. A data abstraction form (DAF) was then built comprising two parts: general(More)
PURPOSE Area under the curve (AUC) dosing is routinely carried out for carboplatin, but the chosen target AUC values remain largely empirical. This multicenter pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) study was performed to determine the covariates involved in the interindividual variability of carboplatin hematotoxicity that should be considered when(More)
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is often used in cancer patients receiving cytotoxic drugs to prevent or reduce high grade neutropenia. We propose a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to describe myelotoxicity in both G-CSF treated and non-treated patients that shall increase our understanding of G-CSF effects. The model was built from(More)
The aminoglycoside gentamicin is often used in equine practice. Despite its clinical use, concerns remain regarding the potential toxic side-effects, such as nephrotoxicity, in equine patients, particularly after repeated dosing. The aim of the study was to investigate first in vitro the mechanisms contributing to the renal toxicity of gentamicin and to(More)
Pour-on formulations of endectocides are extensively used to treat and control systemic parasitic diseases in cattle, worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the natural licking behaviour of cattle on the plasma and faecal disposition of topically administered ivermectin. Twelve Holstein cattle were given one single(More)