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Some Toll and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provide immunity to experimental infections in animal models, but their contribution to host defense in natural ecosystems is unknown. We report a dominant-negative TLR3 allele in otherwise healthy children with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis. TLR3 is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), where(More)
A rise in intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)](i)) is a key trigger for the lethal effects of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in various central neurons, but a consensus has not been reached on the pathways that mediate glutamate-dependent increases of [Ca(2+)](i) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Using Ca(2+) imaging techniques we demonstrated(More)
Intrathecally administered cholinergic agonists such as oxotremorine (muscarinic), carbachol (mixed nicotinic and muscarinic agonist), and epibatidine (nicotinic) have all been shown to reduce nociception in behavioral studies. Thus, there is substantial evidence for a role of acetylcholine (ACh) in the control of nociception in the spinal cord, but the(More)
In the present study, we compared the in vivo neuroprotective efficacy of intraperitoneally administered tetracycline and minocycline to enhance the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following unilateral axotomy of the adult rat optic nerve. We also examined the effects of the tetracycline drugs on the activation of retinal microglia. RGCs in(More)
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