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An early step in the development of vertebrae, ribs, muscle, and dermis is the differentiation of the somitic mesoderm into dermomyotome dorsally and sclerotome ventrally. To analyze this process, we have developed an in vitro assay for somitic mesoderm differentiation. We show that sclerotomal markers can be induced by a diffusible factor secreted by(More)
The bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1 is expressed during the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in three hypothalamic nuclei: the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the anterior periventricular nucleus (aPV), and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). To investigate Sim1 function in the hypothalamus, we produced mice carrying a null allele of Sim1 by gene(More)
Embryonic patterning in vertebrates is dependent upon the balance of inductive signals and their specific antagonists. We show that Noggin, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist expressed in the node, notochord, and dorsal somite, is required for normal mouse development. Although Noggin has been implicated in neural induction,(More)
The DNA binding protein NF-kappa B has been implicated in gene regulation in B and T lymphocytes. We have found that NF-kappa B also has a central role in virus induction of human beta-interferon (beta-IFN) gene expression. A critical virus-inducible element of this gene, PRDII, behaves interchangeably with the NF-kappa B binding site from the Ig kappa(More)
The single-minded (sim) gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that functions as a key determinant of central nervous system (CNS) midline development in Drosophila. We report here the identification of two murine homologs of sim, Sim1 and Sim2, whose products show a high degree of sequence conservation with Drosophila SIM in their amino-terminal halves,(More)
The bHLH-PAS transcription factor SIM1 is required for the development of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Mice homozygous for a null allele of Sim1 (Sim1(-/-)) lack a PVN and die perinatally. In contrast, we show here that Sim1 heterozygous mice are viable but develop early-onset obesity, with increased linear growth, hyperinsulinemia(More)
Dorsoventral polarity of the somitic mesoderm is established by competitive signals originating from adjacent tissues. The ventrally located notochord provides the ventralizing signals to specify the sclerotome, while the dorsally located surface ectoderm and dorsal neural tube provide the dorsalizing signals to specify the dermomyotome. Noggin and SHH-N(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappa B is a heterodimer consisting of two proteins encoded by different members of the rel gene family (p50 and p65). The p50 subunit is unusual among DNA-binding proteins in that its functional form is encoded in an open reading frame of relative molecular mass 105,000 (p105; ref. 4). The N-terminal region of this open reading(More)
The dorsal-ventral polarity of the somite is controlled by antagonistic signals from the dorsal neural tube/surface ectoderm, mediated by WNTs, and from the ventral notochord, mediated by sonic hedgehog (SHH). Each factor can act over a distance greater than a somite diameter in vitro, suggesting they must limit each other's actions within their own(More)
Dorsoventral patterning of somites into sclerotome and dermomyotome involves antagonistic actions of ventralizing and dorsalizing signals originating from tissues surrounding the somites. The notochord and the floor plate of the neural tube provide a ventralizing signal(s) directing sclerotome development, whereas the surface ectoderm and dorsal neural tube(More)