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OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to test the association of the personality traits of neuroticism and extraversion with risk of death in old age. METHODS A census was taken of a geographically defined urban community in Chicago, and those aged 65 years or older were invited to participate in an in-home interview; 6158 (79% of those eligible) did(More)
Longitudinal data from a cohort of older men and women, aged 70-79, were used to test the hypothesis that stronger self-efficacy beliefs would protect against onset of perceived functional disabilities over a 2.5-year follow-up, independent of underlying physical ability. Standard self-report scales were used to assess perceived functional disabilities,(More)
This study examines whether high self-efficacy is protective against a decline in functional status in community-residing elderly persons. Data came from a sample of 1,103 subjects aged > or = 72 years who were ambulatory within the household and who received in-home assessments at baseline and 18 months later to obtain information on sociodemographic,(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess mortality associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) among older African Americans and whites from an urban community. DESIGN Longitudinal population-based observational study. SETTING Four adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS Persons deemed free of dementia in a previous wave of(More)
OBJECTIVE The Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH) is a semistructured interview developed for the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) study, a multicenter clinical trial of treatment for depression and low perceived social support after acute myocardial infarction. The DISH is designed to diagnose depression in medically(More)
We examined the relation of personality to mortality in 883 older Catholic clergy members (69% women). At baseline, they completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, which assesses the five principal dimensions of personality. They were followed for a mean of 5.1 years, during which 182 deaths occurred. Risk of death was nearly doubled in those with a high(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that years of formal education modifies the relation of AD pathology to level of cognitive function. METHODS A total of 130 older Catholic clergy participating in the Religious Orders Study underwent annual cognitive function testing and brain autopsy at the time of death. Individual cognitive function tests were z-scored(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-sectional and retrospective case-control studies suggest an association of depression symptoms with cognitive impairment and AD, but there have been few prospective studies and their results have been inconsistent. METHODS Participants are Catholic clergy members who were aged > or =65 years and who did not have clinical evidence of AD.(More)
BACKGROUND Findings from studies investigating whether physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive decline in old age have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To examine whether participation in physical activity by older adults reduces the rate of cognitive decline after accounting for participation in cognitively stimulating activities. DESIGN A(More)
Persons without dementia residing in a biracial community completed a brief scale of proneness to psychological distress, and 1,064 were subsequently examined for incident Alzheimer disease (AD) 3 to 6 years later. In analyses controlling for selected demographic and clinical variables, persons prone to distress were 2.4 times more likely to develop AD than(More)