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Studies of clinal variation have helped greatly in the elucidation of the mechanisms of both adaptation and speciation (Endler 1977; Barton and Hewitt 1989). Clines have been explained by selection acting within a continuous population (primary intergradation) or, more frequently, as the result of contact between populations differentiated in allopatry(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the prevalence of smoking and alcohol use and abuse in an impoverished rural region of western Kenya. METHODS Picked from a population-based longitudinal database of demographic and health census data, 72 292 adults (≥18 years) were asked to self-report their recent (within the past 30 days) and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol(More)
Self-reported use of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) among clubbers has increased over the last decade, and is often reported in the scientific literature in association with negative events such as amnesia, overdose, and use in drug facilitated sexual assault. However, there has been relatively little work investigating the phenomenology of GHB intoxication,(More)
Despite long-standing concern over the sexual health of the population there has been little work undertaken in the UK investigating sexual risk taking and sexual behaviours in the context of substance use. To investigate this further, 270 non-drug treatment seeking members of the public aged between 18 and 66 were administered a questionnaire containing(More)
BACKGROUND Governments aim to increase treatment participation by problematic drug users. In the UK this has been achieved by fiscal investment, an expanded workforce, reduced waiting times and coercive measures (usually criminal justice (CJ) led). No assessment of these measures on treatment outcomes has been made. Using established monitoring systems we(More)
Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual 1454 hygiene management (MHM) on equity for girls' education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the(More)
BACKGROUND Targeted global efforts to improve survival of young adults need information on mortality trends; contributions from health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) are required. METHODS AND FINDINGS This study aimed to explore changing trends in deaths among adolescents (15-19 years) and young adults (20-24 years), using census and verbal(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe drug use, sexual risks and the prevalence of blood-borne viral infections among men who inject image and performance enhancing drugs (IPEDs). DESIGN A voluntary unlinked-anonymous cross-sectional biobehavioural survey. SETTING 19 needle and syringe programmes across England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS 395 men who had injected IPEDs.(More)
BACKGROUND Information on trauma-related deaths in low and middle income countries is limited but needed to target public health interventions. Data from a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) were examined to characterise such deaths in rural western Kenya. METHODS AND FINDINGS Verbal autopsy data were analysed. Of 11,147 adult deaths(More)
While usually perceived as behaviour of the young, use of illicit drugs by people aged 50 and over is increasing in Europe and the USA. This increase largely reflects the ageing of general populations, and people who use drugs continuing to do so as they age. For those people dependent upon drugs [usually users of opiates (heroin) and stimulants (cocaine,(More)