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Light detected in the retina modulates several physiological processes including circadian photo-entrainment and pupillary light reflex. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) convey rod-cone and melanopsin-driven light input to the brain. Using EEGs and electromyograms, we show that acute light induces sleep in mice during their(More)
In mammals, synchronization of the circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamus is achieved through direct input from the eyes conveyed by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Circadian photoentrainment can be maintained by rod and cone photoreceptors, but their functional contributions and their retinal circuits that impinge on ipRGCs(More)
In the absence of functional rod and cone photoreceptors, mammals retain the ability to detect light for a variety of physiological functions such as circadian photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex. This is attributed to a third class of photoreceptors, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells that express the photopigment melanopsin.(More)
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