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BACKGROUND Heat wave prevention plans are traditionally implemented according to a temperature limit above which mortality begins to rise. Although these prevention plans are obviously designed to avoid deaths, it is also necessary to establish the impact of extreme temperatures on hospital admissions in order to put hospital alert plans into action for(More)
We present a new approach to improve the reliability of quantifying the impact of a heat wave on mortality rates. We show, for the recent European summer 2003 heat wave, that the use of absolute maximum temperature values, or number of days above a given threshold, can be misleading. Here, we have assessed the impact of the heat wave on Iberian mortality by(More)
BACKGROUND Road traffic noise is a major public health issue, given the documented association with several diseases and the growing number of exposed persons all over the world. The effects widely investigated pertain to cardiovascular health, and to a lesser extent to respiratory and metabolic health. The epidemiological design of most studies has made it(More)
BACKGROUND Saharan dust outbreaks are a common phenomenon in the Madrid atmosphere. The current Directive 2008/50 CE governing air quality in European cities, draws no distinction between which particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5) or PM(10-2.5)) would be the best indicator on days with/without Saharan dust intrusions. This study sought to identify the role(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence on the short-term effects of fine and coarse particles on morbidity in Europe is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES We aimed to estimate the association between daily concentrations of fine and coarse particles with hospitalizations for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions in eight Southern European cities, within the(More)
BACKGROUND The role of Saharan dust outbreaks on the relationship between particulate matter and daily mortality has recently been addressed in studies conducted in Southern Europe, although they have not given consistent results. METHODS We investigated the effects of coarse (PM(10-2.5)) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) in Madrid on total mortality(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this paper was to analyse the effects of the urban air pollutants and noise levels on daily emergency hospital admissions of children less than 10 years of age in Madrid. MATERIAL AND METHODS Poisson Regression Models were used to quantify the associations. Meteorological variables, influenza epidemics, pollen concentrations and(More)
Regime shifts from one ecological state to another are often portrayed as sudden, dramatic, and difficult to reverse. Yet many regime shifts unfold slowly and imperceptibly after a tipping point has been exceeded, especially at regional and global scales. These long, smooth transitions between equilibrium states are easy to miss, ignore, or deny,(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between occupational noise and cardiovascular outcomes has been widely investigated. Regarding environmental noise levels, the attention is focused on road traffic noise due to the large number of exposed persons and the large periods of exposure. There are few studies assessing the short-term effects of traffic noise on(More)
The red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata is a long-lived, slow-growing sessile invertebrate of ecological and conservation importance in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We develop a series of size-based matrix models for two Paramuricea clavata populations. These models were used to estimate basic life history traits for this species and to evaluate the(More)