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Powdery calcium carbonates, predominantly calcite and aragonite, with planar defects and cation-anion mixed surfaces as deposited on low-carbon steel by magnetic water treatment (MWT) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and vibration spectroscopy. Calcite were found to form faceted nanoparticles having 3x (01̄14) commensurate(More)
A new type of all-single-mode fiber depolarizer, based upon a 2 x 2 coupler and a recirculating delay line and useable with a coherent light source, is proposed and demonstrated. The reduction in the degree of polarization is examined theoretically and experimentally. Design criteria and principles are discussed. With a narrow-band laser source, the degree(More)
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