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Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) relies on an accurate tracking of the resonance frequency of a scanning probe. It is now used in environments ranging from ultrahigh vacuum to aqueous solutions, for slow and for fast imaging, with probes resonating from a few kilohertz up to several megahertz. Here we present a versatile experimental(More)
Aspects of exchange bias between antiferromagnets and ferromagnets remain unclear despite recent research. An outstanding issue is the relationship between exchange bias and enhanced coercivity in the ferromagnetic layer. This Letter reports the unexpected finding that a substantial exchange bias can be generated between an antiferromagnet (FeMn) with a(More)
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