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Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) are highly sensitive tools for anterograde and retrograde pathway tracing studies of the nervous system. BDA can be reliably delivered into the nervous system by iontophoretic or pressure injection and visualized with an avidin-biotinylated HRP (ABC) procedure, followed by a standard or metal-enhanced diaminobenzidine (DAB)(More)
Fluorescent dextran amines have recently been reported to be useful for anterograde pathway tracing. However, fluorescent markers are not always ideal for detailed mapping studies. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of a biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) for anterograde labeling in several different preparations. BDA was visualized with an(More)
While a basal ganglia with striatal and pallidal subdivisions is 1 clearly present in many extant anamniote species, this basal ganglia is cell sparse and receives only a relatively modest tegmental dopaminergic input and little if any cortical input. The major basal ganglia influence on motor functions in anamniotes appears to be exerted via output(More)
Birds have well-developed basal ganglia within the telencephalon, including a striatum consisting of the medially located lobus parolfactorius (LPO) and the laterally located paleostriatum augmentatum (PA). Relatively little is known, however, about the extent and organization of the telencephalic "cortical" input to the avian basal ganglia (i.e., the avian(More)
Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the distributions of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in pigeon forebrain and midbrain to determine the organization of GABAergic systems in these brain areas in birds. In the basal ganglia, numerous medium-sized neurons throughout the striatum were labeled for GABA, while(More)
This paper presents and reviews data suggesting that the dorsal thalamic zone (abbreviated DTZ) in birds is homologous to the intralaminar, midline, and mediodorsal thalamic nuclear complex (abbreviated IMMC) in mammals. The DTZ is located dorsomedially in the diencephalon of birds and consists of several subnuclei: nucleus dorsomedialis anterior thalami(More)
Based on its location, connectivity and neurotransmitter content, the dorsal thalamic zone in birds appears to be homologous to the intralaminar, midline, and mediodorsal nuclear complex in the thalamus of mammals. We investigated the neuroactive substances used by thalamostriatal projection neurons of the dorsal thalamic zone in the pigeon. Single-labeling(More)
In mammals, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a glutamatergic diencephalic cell group that develops in the caudal hypothalamus and migrates to a position above the cerebral peduncle. By its input from the external pallidal segment and projection to the internal pallidal segment, STN plays a critical role in basal ganglia functions. Although the basal ganglia(More)
Autoradiographic and immunohistochemical methods were used to study the distributions of GABAA, GABAB and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors in the pigeon fore- and midbrain. GABAA, GABAB and BDZ binding sites were found to be abundant although heterogeneously distributed in the telencephalon. The primary sensory areas of the pallium of the avian telencephalon(More)
Glutamate receptors are composed of subtype-specific subunits. Variation in the precise subunit composition of a receptor may result in significant functional differences. Thus, a precise knowledge of subunit composition on striatal neurons is a prerequisite for understanding the selective vulnerability of striatal neurons to excitatory amino acids. In the(More)