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We present CiteSeer: an autonomous citation indexing system which indexes academic literature in electronic format (e.g. Postscript files on the Web). CiteSeer understands how to parse citations, identify citations to the same paper in different formats, and identify the context of citations in the body of articles. CiteSeer provides most of the advantages(More)
The publicly indexable World-Wide Web now contains about 800 million pages, encompassing about 6 terabytes of text data on about 3 million servers. The web is increasingly being used in all aspects of society; for example, consumers use search engines to locate and buy goods, or to research many decisions (such as choosing a holiday destination, medical(More)
The Web is revolutionizing the way researchers access scientific literature, however scientific literature on the Web is largely disorganized. Autonomous citation indexing can help organize the literature by automating the construction of citation indices. Autonomous citation indexing aims to improve the dissemination and retrieval of scientific literature,(More)
We present a hybrid neural-network for human face recognition which compares favourably with other methods. The system combines local image sampling, a self-organizing map (SOM) neural network, and a convolutional neural network. The SOM provides a quantization of the image samples into a topological space where inputs that are nearby in the original space(More)
Maintaining currency of search engine indices by exhaustive crawling is rapidly becoming impossible due to the increasing size and dynamic content of the web. Focused crawlers aim to search only the subset of the web related to a specific category, and offer a potential solution to the currency problem. The major problem in focused crawling is performing(More)
The coverage and recency of the major World Wide Web search engines was analyzed, yielding some surprising results. The coverage of any one engine is significantly limited: No single engine indexes more than about one-third of the “indexable Web,” the coverage of the six engines investigated varies by an order of magnitude, and combining the results of the(More)
The growth of Internet commerce has stimulated the use of collaborative filtering (CF) algorithms as recommender systems. Such systems leverage knowledge about the known preferences of multiple users to recommend items of interest to other users. CF methods have been harnessed to make recommendations about such items as web pages, movies, books, and toys.(More)
As a whole, the World Wide Web displays a striking "rich get richer" behavior, with a relatively small number of sites receiving a disproportionately large share of hyperlink references and traffic. However, hidden in this skewed global distribution, we discover a qualitatively different and considerably less biased link distribution among subcategories of(More)
Due to name abbreviations, identical names, name misspellings, and pseudonyms inpublications or bibliographies (citations), an author may have multiple names and multiple authors may share the same name. Such name ambiguity affects the performance of document retrieval, web search, database integration, and may cause improper attribution to authors. This(More)