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This paper considers a class of approximate Riemann solver devised by Harten, Lax, and van Leer (denoted HLL) for the Euler equations of inviscid gas dynamics. In their 1983 paper, Harten, Lax, and van Leer showed how, with a priori knowledge of the signal velocities, a singlestate approximate Riemann solver could be constructed so as to automatically(More)
Four bacterial strains were isolated from larval cultures and collectors of the scallop Pecten maximus. They showed a high level of intragroup genomic relatedness (84-95%) as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization. The cells were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, motile, ovoid rods. They grew at temperatures from 15 to 37 degrees C and from pH 7.0 to 10, but(More)
Evolutionarily significant selective sweeps may result in long stretches of homozygous polymorphisms in individuals from outbred populations. We developed whole-genome homozygosity association (WGHA) methodology to characterize this phenomenon in healthy individuals and to use this genomic feature to identify genetic risk loci for schizophrenia (SCZ).(More)
The occurrence of brown ring disease (BRD) in farmed Manila clams Ruditapes philippinarum is seasonal. Development of the disease is believed to require the presence of the infective agent Vibrio tapetis and particular environmental conditions. This paper studies the effect of salinity (20 to 40 per thousand) on measurable immune parameters of Manila clams,(More)
Two vibrio bacteria pathogenic to the corkwing wrasse Symphodus melops were isolated. Vibriosis-inducing strain LP1 was isolated as the dominanting bacterium in kidney samples of dead and moribund wrasse from a population suffering vibriosis and high daily mortality in 1998 on the Norwegian west coast. The other vibriosis-inducing strain, LP2, was isolated(More)
Hemocytes are the immune effectors in clams, directing cellular but also humoral defences. In the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) and the carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus), two phenotypically similar venerid species, fishery and aquaculture importance motivated scientific studies to improve knowledge about the participation of hemocytes in(More)
Different strains related to Vibrio splendidus have been associated with infection of aquatic animals. An epidemiological study of V. splendidus strains associated with Crassostrea gigas mortalities demonstrated genetic diversity within this group and suggested its polyphyletic nature. Recently 4 species, V. lentus, V. chagasii, V. pomeroyi and V. kanaloae,(More)
The impact of diets upon the fatty acid composition of haemocyte polar lipids and consequently upon immune parameters has been tested in the oyster Crassostrea gigas and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. Oysters and clams were fed each of three cultured algae: Chaetoceros calcitrans, which is rich in 20:5(n-3) and 20:4(n-6) and poor in 22:6(n-3) fatty(More)
Vibrio aestuarianus strain 01/32 was previously shown to be pathogenic to Crassostrea gigas juveniles. To investigate virulence mechanisms of this pathogen, we studied the toxicity to oysters of its extracellular products (ECPs). ECPs displayed lethality to animals, with a LD(50) value of 3.3 microg/g body weight. To determine the oyster cellular immune(More)
The aim of this study was to test the effect of food quantity on energy storage and defense capacities of oysters during a reproductive cycle. One-year-old Crassostrea gigas oysters were fed two different dietary rations (4% and 12% of oyster dry weight in algal dry weight per day) in controlled experimental conditions over an annual cycle. Oyster dry(More)