Learn More
— Multilevel-cell (MLC) storage is a typical way for achieving increased capacity and thus lower cost-per-bit in memory technologies. In phase-change memory (PCM), however, MLC storage is seriously hampered by the phenomenon of resistance drift. Reference cells may be used to offer some relief, however their effectiveness is limited due to the stochastic(More)
Phase-change memory (PCM) has emerged in recent years as the most promising technology for non-volatile memory due to its very high throughput performance and read/write endurance as well as future scalability. Multilevel functionality is crucial for increasing the capacity and thus enhancing the cost per GByte competitiveness of the PCM technology.(More)
We study binary Content Addressable Memories (CAMs) that employ a resistive element to store content. A CAM has a match line for every word stored which is sensed in order to determine a match/no match condition. We show how simple, low redundancy coding techniques can dramatically improve the ability to differentiate a match from a mismatch, effectively(More)
In this paper, we propose a new approach to wood aging problems in computer graphics. During its life, wood suffers from various damages due, for example, to insects, fungus or drying. These damages can have an impact on the appearance of wood, for example insects can create galleries in its structure and drying can lead to topological changes or(More)
A method based on Frenkel-Poole emission is proposed to model the I–V data of the amorphous state (high resistance state) in mushroom-type phase-change memory (PCM) devices. We found the I–V characteristics in the high resistance state are dominated by (i) the size of the amorphous GST (aGST) volume and (ii) the trap density of the amorphized(More)
We demonstrate poly-Silicon emitter vertical PNP Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) that could be used as access devices for Phase Change Memory. The device arrays fabricated using a 180nm BiCMOS process exhibit current drive capability in excess of 10mA/&#x00B5;m<sup>2</sup>, On-Off ratio greater than six orders of magnitude and excellent cross-talk(More)
In this paper, a detailed study on the etching characteristics of nitrogen doped Ge<sub>2</sub>Sb<sub>2</sub>Te<sub>5</sub> (N:GST) thin films is performed to elucidate the relationship between pattern fidelity and material modification. Multiple methodologies ranging from physical sputtering to chemically driven reactive etching are shown to successfully(More)
  • 1