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Methodology for determining fluxes of CO 2 and H 2 O vapor with the eddy-covariance method using data from instruments on a 447-m tower in the forest of northern Wisconsin is addressed. The primary goal of this study is the validation of the methods used to determine the net ecosystem exchange of CO 2. Two-day least squares fits coupled with 30-day running(More)
The potential use of piezoelectric bimorph actuators in minimally invasive surgery suture-needle grasper/holder applications is explored computationally. Upon defining the design/functional requirements for such surgical tools, a finite element analysis of the underlying piezoelectric boundary value problem is combined with the genetic algorithm(More)
Anisodamine, an analog of atropine, was isolated first in China. Patch-clamp technique was used to study the inhibitory effect of anisodamine (Ani) on acetylcholine receptor on the membrane of muscle innervated by neuron. Neural tube in embryo of Xenopus laevis were cultured. By whole-cell clamp and outside-out patch, we found that the inhibitory effect of(More)
Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a promising circuit topology in the field of high-voltage direct current transmission (HVDC) systems. To enhance the reliability of the MMC in this field, the popular method is the addition of redundant submodules (SMs). However, the MMC will become unbalanced when some SMs fails and the performance will be(More)
Manufacturing industries adapt ESI (Early Supplier Involvement) to provide new products in shorter time. High-levels collaboration between members of virtual enterprise has become essential for the most advanced competiveness. However, benefits of ESI do not offset difficulties inherent in managing project across organization. To address this need, a(More)
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