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OBJECTIVE This experiment tested the hypothesis that exercise would improve executive function. DESIGN Sedentary, overweight 7- to 11-year-old children (N = 171, 56% girls, 61% Black, M ± SD age = 9.3 ± 1.0 years, body mass index [BMI] = 26 ± 4.6 kg/m², BMI z-score = 2.1 ± 0.4) were randomized to 13 ± 1.6 weeks of an exercise program (20 or 40 min/day),(More)
Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children's intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults' cognitive functioning, and (c) studies conducted(More)
Adipose tissue is a known source of proinflammatory cytokines in obese humans and animal models, including the db/db mouse, in which obesity arises as a result of leptin receptor insensitivity. Inflammatory cytokines induce cognitive deficits across numerous conditions, but no studies have determined whether obesity-induced inflammation mediates synaptic(More)
Primary cultures of neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to examine the mechanisms underlying both the direct activation and the sensitization of sensory neurons by prostanoids. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) elevated cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a subpopulation of small (< 19 microm) diameter, capsaicin-sensitive DRG neurons.(More)
The short-term after effects of a bout of moderate aerobic exercise were hypothesized to facilitate children's executive functioning as measured by a visual task-switching test. Sixty-nine children (mean age=9.2 years) who were overweight and inactive performed a category-decision task before and immediately following a 23-min bout of treadmill walking and,(More)
We have assessed functional and structural evidence for sympathetic innervation of human tracheal and bronchial smooth muscles. In the bronchus, functional evidence for such innervation was shown by the following results: a leftward shift in the noradrenaline inhibitory dose-response curve by the neuronal uptake blocker imipramine; the inhibition of uptake(More)
We present a measurement of the time-dependent CP-violating (CPV) asymmetries in B0-->K(0)(S)pi(0) decays based on 124x10(6) Upsilon(4S)-->BB decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC. In a sample containing 122+/-16 signal decays, we obtain the magnitudes of the direct CPV asymmetry(More)
OBJECTIVE Children who are less fit reportedly have lower performance on tests of cognitive control and differences in brain function. This study examined the effect of an exercise intervention on brain function during two cognitive control tasks in overweight children. DESIGN AND METHODS Participants included 43 unfit, overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile)(More)
BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e þ e À B Factory operating at the Uð4SÞ resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagnetic showers from electrons and photons(More)
Aerobic fitness is associated with white matter integrity (WMI) in adults as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study examined the effect of an 8-month exercise intervention on WMI in children. Participants were 18 sedentary, overweight (BMI≥85th percentile) 8- to 11-year-old children (94% Black), randomly assigned to either an aerobic(More)