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Functional cloning led to the isolation of a novel methotrexate (MTX) resistance gene in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. The gene corresponds to orfG, an open reading frame (ORF) of the LD1/CD1 genomic locus that is frequently amplified in several Leishmania stocks. A functional ORF G-green fluorescence protein fusion was localized to the plasma(More)
Gene amplification is frequently observed in Leishmania cells selected for drug resistance. By gene targeting we have tagged both alleles of the H locus of Leishmania tarentolae with the neomycin and hygromycin phosphotransferase genes ( neo and hyg ). Selection of these recombinant parasites for low level methotrexate resistance led to amplification of the(More)
Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani cells freshly isolated from infected animals divided slowly as axenic promastigotes but the addition of biopterin in the culture medium greatly enhanced their growth. However, when cells were subjected to serial passages and adapted to culture, this growth-promoting effect of biopterin was no longer observed. Genetic(More)
The protozoan parasite Leishmania resists the antifolate methotrexate (MTX) by amplifying the R locus dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase ( dhfr-ts ) gene, the H locus ptr1 pterin reductase gene, and finally by mutation in a common folate/MTX transporter. Amplification of dhfr-ts has never been observed in Leishmania tarentolae MTX resistant(More)
The main line of defense available against parasitic protozoa is chemotherapy. Drug resistance has emerged however, as a primary obstacle to the successful treatment and control of parasitic diseases. Leishmania spp., the causative agents of leishmaniasis, have served as a useful model for studying mechanisms of drug resistance in vitro. Antimonials and(More)
Multiresistance plasmids and transposons, the integrons, the co-amplification of several resistance genes or finally the accumulation of independent mutations can lead to microorganisms resistant to multiple drugs. On the other hand multidrug resistance is due to an efflux pump conferring resistance to unrelated drugs. These microbial efflux pumps are(More)
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