C. John Runions

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Clarkia xantiana has two subspecies that differ in breeding system: ssp. xantiana, which is outcrossing, and ssp. parviflora, which is self-fertilizing. Outcrossing is the ancestral breeding system for the genus Clarkia. Flowers of ssp. parviflora have characteristics commonly associated with selfing taxa: they are smaller and have little temporal and(More)
Stages of normal sexual reproduction between pollen germination and egg maturation are described for interior spruce. These prezygotic stages were studied by light and electron microscopy in more detail than was possible in previous studies, and new observations have been made. Sperm (male gametes) formation and the organelles that accompany the sperm(More)
Sacci of conifer pollen do not function primarily to increase the efficiency of wind pollination as is widely thought. Rather, they are bladders and cause pollen to float upwards in a liquid drop into the ovules. This observation is seemingly unsupported in the case of oriental spruce (Picea orientalis (L.) Link), which has saccate pollen. Ovulate cones are(More)
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