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Simultaneous measurements of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) melatonin and urinary excretion of 6-hydroxymelatonin were performed in four normal volunteers and one patient before and after upper thoracic sympathectomy for the control of essential hyperhidrosis. For normal individuals, hourly 24-h melatonin concentrations in plasma and CSF exhibited(More)
We study quantum Darwinism--the redundant recording of information about the preferred states of a decohering system by its environment--for an object illuminated by a blackbody. In the cases of point-source and isotropic illumination, we calculate the quantum mutual information between the object and its photon environment. We demonstrate that this(More)
There is little information on the effect of pain on neuropsychological test performance. We have undertaken this study to explore which tests are affected by pain, the magnitude of these changes, and other confounders of neuropsychological performance in a population of patients having spine surgery. Twenty-four elderly English speaking Caucasian patients(More)
BACKGROUND Paraclinoid or ophthalmic segment aneurysms arise from the internal carotid artery (ICA) between the roof of the cavernous sinus and the origin of the posterior communicating artery. Clinoid aneurysms arise between the proximal and distal carotid dural rings. The complex anatomy of clinoid and paraclinoid ICA aneurysms often makes them difficult(More)
We point out that arguments for the security of Kish's noise-based cryptographic protocol have relied on an unphysical no-wave limit, which if taken seriously would prevent any correlation from developing between the users. We introduce a noiseless version of the protocol, also having illusory security in the no-wave limit, to show that noise and(More)
OBJECT A variety of techniques may be used to achieve fixation of the upper cervical spine. Transarticular atlantoaxial screws, posterior interspinous cable and graft constructs, and interlaminar clamps have been used effectively to achieve atlantoaxial fixation. Various anatomical factors, however, may preclude the successful application of these(More)
BACKGROUND Modern cranial base approaches to the clivus and foramen magnum may threaten the stability of the cranio-cervical junction. This necessitates stabilization and fusion in some cases. We studied occipitocervical fusion after extreme lateral transcondylar approaches. METHODS Twenty-seven patients underwent an extreme lateral transcondylar approach(More)
CRM107 (crossreacting material 107), a double point mutant of diphtheria toxin that lacks receptor-binding activity, specifically kills cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo. After injection into guinea pig cerebrospinal fluid, CRM107 (0.9 micrograms) and CRM107-monoclonal antibody conjugates (10 micrograms) kill up to 90% of the total Purkinje cell population(More)
Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our(More)