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Ruminant production is under increased public scrutiny in terms of the importance of cattle and other ruminants as major producers of the greenhouse gas methane. Methanogenesis is performed by methanogenic archaea, a specialised group of microbes present in several anaerobic environments including the rumen. In the rumen, methanogens utilise predominantly(More)
We have recently developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify copies of the genes encoding protozoal 18S rRNA. The assay includes procedures for isolating and concentrating protozoal cells from the rumen for use as a standard to convert 18S rRNA gene copies to a biomass basis. The current objectives were to 1) determine the degree(More)
Samples and extracts of foliage from African multipurpose trees were screened for their effects on rumen protozoa and bacteria with a view to predicting their safety as feed supplements and for identifying species with potential antiprotozoal activity. The species tested were Acacia aneura, Chamaecytisus palmensis, Brachychiton populneum, Flindersia(More)
The influence of sodium fumarate on rumen fermentation was investigated in vitro using batch and semi-continuous cultures of mixed rumen micro-organisms taken from three sheep receiving a basal diet of hay, barley, molasses, fish meal and a mineral-vitamin supplement (500, 299.5, 100, 91 and 9.5 g/kg DM respectively). Batch cultures consisted of 10 ml(More)
The effects of including yeast culture (YC; Saccharomyces cerevisae plus growth medium; 5 x 10(9) organisms/g) in diets for ruminants was examined in two experiments. In Exp. 1, 32 multiparous Friesian dairy cows were fed between wk 7 to 12 of lactation one of four completely mixed diets based on either hay or straw plus rolled barley (mixed to give(More)
A commercial blend of essential oil (EO) compounds was added to a grass, maize silage, and concentrate diet fed to dairy cattle in order to determine their influence on protein metabolism by ruminal microorganisms. EO inhibited (P < 0.05) the rate of deamination of amino acids. Pure-culture studies indicated that the species most sensitive to EO were(More)
In a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiment, six heifers (443 +/- 6.1 kg) fed a 61% barley grain:39% alfalfa silage diet (DM basis) were given intraruminal doses of powdered Yucca schidigera (YS). Doses of 0 (control), 20, or 60 g/d were given at 0800 daily. Ruminal content was sampled 0, 2, 4, and 6 h after dosing. Acidity, concentrations of reducing(More)
The effects of protozoa on ruminal NH3-N kinetics and bacterial N recycling were measured in five sheep (57.6+/-7.1 kg BW, x +/- SD) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas in naturally faunated, defaunated, and refaunated periods. The sheep were fed a diet of 239 g of alfalfa haylage and 814 g of barley concentrate per day (DM basis) divided into 12 equal(More)
The objective of this study was to understand the effects of fumarate addition on methane (CH4) and VFA production in the rumen through a meta-analysis of its effects on ruminal batch cultures. Because the reduction of fumarate to succinate can draw electrons away from ruminal methanogenesis, fumarate has been studied as a potential feed additive to(More)
Three groups of five wethers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas and maintained as either fauna-free (FF) or inoculated with total mixed fauna (TF) or Entodinium caudatum as a single-species monofauna (EN) were used in an experiment with two 28 d periods. In the first period, the sheep were fed a control barley-based diet (40:60 concentrate to silage DM) and(More)