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Microbial and synthetic DNA rich in CpG dinucleotides stimulates Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), whereas DNA lacking CpG either is inert or can inhibit TLR9 activation. The molecular mechanisms by which TLR9 becomes activated or is inhibited are not well understood. Here we show that TLR9 bound to stimulatory and inhibitory DNA; however, only stimulatory DNA(More)
There is considerable interest in small proteins that fold very rapidly. These proteins have become attractive targets for both theoretical and computational studies. The independently folded 36-residue villin headpiece subdomain has been the subject of a number of such studies and is predicted to fold quickly. We demonstrate using dynamic NMR line-shape(More)
Metal binding has been suggested to be relevant in the antifungal and antibacterial mechanism of histatin 5, a human salivary protein. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained to investigate the specificity of metal binding to the seven histidyl, one aspartyl and one glutamyl amino acid side-chains of histatin 5 in aqueous solutions.(More)
The actin-bundling protein villin contains, at its extreme C terminus, a compact f-actin binding domain called "headpiece". This 76-amino acid domain from chicken is highly thermostable. Here, we show that the stable folded structure in headpiece is localized to a subdomain formed by the C-terminal 35 residues. The subdomain, denoted HP-35, is monomeric and(More)
A recently described class of DNA binding proteins is characterized by the "bZIP" motif, which consists of a basic region that contacts DNA and an adjacent "leucine zipper" that mediates protein dimerization. A peptide model for the basic region of the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 has been developed in which the leucine zipper has been replaced by a(More)
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL) is associated with mutations in the APOB gene. We reported the first missense APOB mutation, R463W, in an FHBL kindred (Burnett, J. R., Shan, J., Miskie, B. A., Whitfield, A. J., Yuan, J., Tran, K., Mc-Knight, C. J., Hegele, R. A., and Yao, Z. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 13442-13452). Here we identified a second(More)
A "switch" mutant of the Arc repressor homodimer was constructed by interchanging the sequence positions of a hydrophobic core residue, leucine 12, and an adjacent surface polar residue, asparagine 11, in each strand of an intersubunit beta sheet. The mutant protein adopts a fold in which each beta strand is replaced by a right-handed helix and side chains(More)
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL), an autosomal co-dominant disorder, is associated with reduced plasma concentrations (<5th percentile for age and sex) of apolipoprotein (apo) B and beta-migrating lipoproteins. To date, only mutations in APOB encoding prematurely truncated apoB have been found in FHBL. We discovered a novel APOB gene mutation, namely(More)
Phosphohydrolysis of extracellular ATP and ADP is an essential step in purinergic signaling that regulates key pathophysiological processes, such as those linked to inflammation. Classically, this reaction has been known to occur in the pericellular milieu catalyzed by membrane bound cellular ecto-nucleotidases, which can be released in the form of both(More)