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BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor may have an important role in the pathogenesis of emphysema. The effect of another angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unknown. METHODS The serum levels of VEGF and PlGF in patients with COPD (n = 184), smokers (n = 212)(More)
Chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide, however, the pathogenic factors and mechanisms are not fully understood. Pulmonary emphysema is one of the major components of COPD and is thought to result from oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, protease-antiprotease imbalance and lung epithelial (LE) cell(More)
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia can cause various clinical diseases; however, pleural infections due to S. maltophilia are rare. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with pleural infections (complicated parapneumonic effusion or empyema) due to S. maltophilia who were treated at a medical center in Taiwan from 2004 to 2012. During(More)
The resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to second-line drugs (SLDs) is growing worldwide; however, associations between the appropriateness of treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and whether the directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS)/DOTS-plus programs had an impact on the prevalence of SLD-resistant MTB are still uncertain. We performed a(More)
Sir, Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) was used in conventional radiotherapy (RT) target volume for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC) in contrast to involved-field RT only in some recent studies (Erridge and Murray, 2003). In contrast to non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), where ENI was now less favoured (Senan et al, 2004), whether ENI could be(More)
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