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The immune system offers to be a rich source of metaphors to guide the exploration of the notion of an adaptive system. We might define a class of systems which are inspired by, but diverge from, descriptions of the immune system, and refer to them as immune-bused systems. The research reported here is motivated by a desire to explore the possibilities of(More)
Anti-TNFalpha strategies can result in significant clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but with an increased rate of opportunistic infections. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease that can develop in immunocompromised hosts, principally in HIV patients. VL in RA patients treated with TNFalpha antagonists is an extremely rare event,(More)
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (anti-TNF-a) therapy strategies result in significant clinical benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but with an increased rate of serious infectious diseases. We describe a patient receiving infliximab who developed a primary cutaneous Nocardia otitidiscaviarum infection after a skin injury.
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that activate cells of the innate immune systems upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLR4 is an essential component of the innate immune response to various microorganisms. We investigated the impact of TLR4 polymorphism on development of opportunistic diseases in(More)
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