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The immune system offers to be a rich source of metaphors to guide the exploration of the notion of an adaptive system. We might define a class of systems which are inspired by, but diverge from, descriptions of the immune system, and refer to them as immune-bused systems. The research reported here is motivated by a desire to explore the possibilities of… (More)
Anti-TNFalpha strategies can result in significant clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but with an increased rate of opportunistic infections. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease that can develop in immunocompromised hosts, principally in HIV patients. VL in RA patients treated with TNFalpha antagonists is an extremely rare event,… (More)
Anti-tumor necrosis factor-a (anti-TNF-a) therapy strategies result in significant clinical benefits in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but with an increased rate of serious infectious diseases. We describe a patient receiving infliximab who developed a primary cutaneous Nocardia otitidiscaviarum infection after a skin injury.
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are transmembrane receptors that activate cells of the innate immune systems upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The TLR4 is an essential component of the innate immune response to various microorganisms. We investigated the impact of TLR4 polymorphism on development of opportunistic diseases in… (More)