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We studied the activity of single neurons in the frontal eye fields of awake macaque monkeys trained to perform several oculomotor tasks. Fifty-four percent of neurons discharged before visually guided saccades. Three different types of presaccadic activity were observed: visual, movement, and anticipatory. Visual activity occurred in response to visual(More)
1. An oculomotor delayed-response task was used to examine the spatial memory functions of neurons in primate prefrontal cortex. Monkeys were trained to fixate a central spot during a brief presentation (0.5 s) of a peripheral cue and throughout a subsequent delay period (1-6 s), and then, upon the extinction of the fixation target, to make a saccadic eye(More)
We studied single neurons in the frontal eye fields of awake macaque monkeys and compared their activity with the saccadic eye movements elicited by microstimulation at the sites of these neurons. Saccades could be elicited from electrical stimulation in the cortical gray matter of the frontal eye fields with currents as small as 10 microA. Low thresholds(More)
Previous studies have reported that some neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex respond selectively to highly specific complex objects. In the present study, we conducted the first systematic survey of the responses of IT neurons to both simple stimuli, such as edges and bars, and highly complex stimuli, such as models of flowers, snakes, hands, and(More)
The spatial memory functions of the monkey's prefrontal cortex were examined with oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) paradigms that required the animal to remember the spatial location of peripheral visual cues, while maintaining fixation on a central visual target during the presentation of each cue and during a subsequent 1.5-8 sec delay period. Four(More)
1. Visual responses and their relationship to delay-period activity were studied by recording single neuron activity from the prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys while they performed an oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) and a visual probe (VP) task. In the ODR task, the monkey was required to maintain fixation of a central spot of light throughout the cue(More)
1. We studied the activity of single neurons in the monkey frontal eye fields during oculomotor tasks designed to assess the activity of these neurons when there was a dissonance between the spatial location of a target and its position on the retina. 2. Neurons with presaccadic activity were first studied to determine their receptive or movement fields and(More)
Physiological and behavioral data reported here show an involvement of the primate frontal eye field (FEF) cortex in smooth-pursuit eye movements, in addition to its well-established role in saccadic eye movements. Microstimulation just ventral to the small saccade representation of the FEF elicits eye movements that, in contrast to elicited saccades, have(More)
1. Single-neuron activity was recorded from the prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing saccadic eye movements in oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) and visually guided saccade (VGS) tasks. In the ODR task the monkey was required to maintain fixation of a central spot throughout the 0.5-s cue and 3.0-s delay before making a saccadic eye movement in the dark(More)
Anterograde tracers (tritiated leucine, proline, fucose; WGA-HRP) were injected into sites within the frontal eye fields (FEF) of nine macaque monkeys. Low thresholds (less than or equal to 50 microA) for electrically evoking saccadic eye movements were used to locate injection sites in four monkeys. Cases were grouped according to the amplitude of saccades(More)