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Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and is removed from the synaptic cleft by sodium-dependent glutamate transporters. To date, five distinct glutamate transporters have been cloned from animal and human tissue: GLAST (EAAT1), GLT-1 (EAAT2), EAAC1 (EAAT3), EAAT4, and EAAT5 (refs 1-5). GLAST and GLT-1 are(More)
Excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) is a high-affinity Na+-dependent L-glutamate/D,L-aspartate cell-membrane transport protein. It is expressed in brain as well as several non-nervous tissues. In brain, EAAC1 is the primary neuronal glutamate transporter. It has a polarized distribution in cells and mainly functions perisynaptically to transport(More)
In rats of either the Sprague-Dawley or Long-Evans strain, either tetrahydroisoquinoline (THP) was infused chronically ICV, or one of three protoberberine (PBN) compounds was administered subcutaneously at birth. When the animals were 120-180 days of age, a constant concentration of alcohol was offered simultaneously with water to those rats which(More)
OBJECTIVE The pacemaker current in cardiac Purkinje fibres has been attributed to either a decrease in potassium conductance or an increase in a non-specific (Na-K) conductance. The former mechanism would be associated with an increase in membrane resistance (Rm) and the latter with a decrease in Rm. The aim of this study was to obtain evidence in support(More)
Propofol, a widely-used intravenous anesthetic, causes bradycardia, depression in contractility and hypotension. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these cardiac toxicity remain unclear. In this study, we examined the cellular electropharmacological actions of propofol on calcium current in guinea-pig heart. Single ventricular myocytes were freshly(More)
1. The effects of somatostatin (SS, 1 nM-3 microM) on the electrical and mechanical activities of isolated Purkinje fibres of the dog were studied. 2. In most Purkinje fibres driven electrically in normal [K]o Tyrode solution, SS decreased the force of contraction slightly and had very little effect on the fast response action potential. However, in(More)
The mechanism underlying the oscillatory current (Ios) was investigated in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers with a voltage-clamp technique. The Ios is initiated not only by repolarizing but also by a depolarizing clamp, provided that the preparation is preloaded with calcium by means of a conditioning clamp and that the depolarizing test clamp initiates the(More)
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