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Cannabidiol is a component of marijuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. We previously reported that an elevation of anandamide levels in cerebrospinal fluid inversely correlated to psychotic symptoms. Furthermore, enhanced anandamide signaling let to a lower transition(More)
Investigations of cognitive biases in animals are conceptually and translationally valuable because they contribute to animal welfare research and help to extend and refine our understanding of human emotional disorders, where biased information processing is a critical causal and maintenance factor. We employed the "learned helplessness" genetic rat model(More)
In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the use of anesthetics without relevant anticonvulsant properties such as ketamine and etomidate may be favorable for seizure quality. Since there is a relative paucity of studies devoted to this issue, our aim was to compare different anesthetics for ECT regarding their impact on seizure quality and different seizure(More)
In a retrospective chart review, we examined the effects of ketamine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, as electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) anaesthetic in patients suffering from therapy-resistant depression. We included 42 patients who received ECT treatment with either ketamine (n = 16) or the barbiturate thiopental (n = 26). We analysed(More)
The human endogenous cannabinoid system is an appealing target in the investigation of psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenia, endocannabinoids and their receptors are involved in the pathology of the disease. Previous studies reported an increased radioligand binding to cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) in schizophrenia, both in the dorsolateral prefrontal(More)
The binocular depth inversion illusion test (BDII) represents a sensitive measure of impaired visual information processing that manifests in various experimental and naturally occurring psychotic states. This study explores impairment of visual processing in different major psychiatric diseases investigating 313 subjects, suffering of either an initial(More)
Postictal agitation (PIA) with possible severe implications occurs in approximately 10% of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) sessions. The pathomechanism is not well understood, and suggested treatments are empirical based. We report a case of repetitive (47/57 sessions [83%]) severe PIA after ECT in a case with severe depression. If the minimal bispectrum(More)
Model psychosis is characterised by experimentally induced symptoms of withdrawal from reality, frequently accompanied by perceptual disturbances, thought disorders, delusional ideas and sometimes by hallucinations. These “altered states of consciousness” provide a long-standing and valid approach to enhance our understanding of certain aspects of(More)
In light of various suggestions concerning underlying deficits and transition patterns, approaching the initial schizophrenic prodrome is a multifaceted enterprise. Recently, the prodromal phase has largely been viewed as a singular concept. However, observations of greatly varying prodromal time courses prompted us to investigate whether these differences(More)