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In 1997, endomorphin-1 (EM-1) and -2 (EM-2) were identified as the most specific endogenous mu-opioid ligands. These two peptides have shown analgesic effects and many other opioid functions. In the present study, we attempt to investigate the possible ability of endomorphins to induce naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in comparison with that induced by(More)
Mitotic death is a major form of cell death in cancer cells that have been treated with chemotherapeutic drugs. However, the mechanisms underlying this form of cell death is poorly understood. Here, we report that the loss of chromosome integrity is an important determinant of mitotic death. During prolonged mitotic arrest, caspase-3 is activated and it(More)
Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process regulated by many signaling pathways; however, the mechanisms and cellular events that decide whether a cell lives or dies remain poorly understood. Here we showed that when a cell is under apoptotic stress, the prosurvival protein Survivin redistributes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thus acting as a(More)
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