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PC12-GFRalpha1 cells, a clonal cell line engineered to express glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha1 were constructed. Given glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor could induce the differentiation and promote the survival of PC12-GFRalpha1 cells at low concentrations, the cells provide an unlimited source of monoclonal cells for(More)
Using the structural equation modeling (SEM) method, the present study examined the role of large-scale neural interactions in developmental stuttering while 10 stuttering and nine non-stuttering subjects performed a covert picture-naming task. Results indicated that the connection patterns were significantly different between stuttering and non-stuttering(More)
Obestatin, a novel putative 23-amino acid peptide, was found to be derived from a mammalian preproghrelin gene by using a bioinformatics approach. Although the effects of obestatin on food intake and upper gut motility remain controversial, no studies have been carried out to explore its influence on lower gut motility and secretion. We investigated the(More)
Interleukin (IL)-2 is not only an immunoregulatory factor, but also an analgesic molecule. There are distinct domains of immune and analgesic functions in the IL-2 molecule. The analgesic domain is located around the 45th Tyr residue of human IL-2 in tertiary structure. Antiopioid (beta-endorphin, Leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin and dynorphin A1-13) sera(More)
Using the tail-flick induced by electro-stimulation as a pain marker, it was found that pain threshold (PT) was significantly increased after injecting interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) into the lateral ventricle of rats. This effect was dosage-dependent and abolished by monoclonal antibody (McAb) to IFN alpha. Naloxone could inhibit the analgesic effect of IFN(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was found to have an analgesic effect in both central and peripheral nervous systems. This effect is related to opioid receptors and mediated mainly by IL-2 directly binding to opioid receptors. Using radioimmunoassay, the content of Leu-enkephalin (LEK) in some nuclei were measured at intervals after the injection of IL-2 into the(More)
The retinal degeneration B (rdgB) gene in Drosophila is essential for photoreceptor function and survival. The rdgB mutant fly exhibits an abnormal electroretinogram and a light-dependent photoreceptor degeneration. The function of RdgB is not fully understood, but the presence of a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein domain suggests a possible role in(More)
Glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a protein known to enhance the survival of dopaminergic and motor neurons. It has been shown to have therapeutic potential in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. GDNF gene was modified by deletion and insertion mutagenesis using PCR methods. The various mutants were(More)
Mutations in the Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) gene cause a rapid loss of the electrophysiological light response and subsequent light-enhanced photoreceptor degeneration. The rdgB gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal phosphatidylinositol transfer protein domain, a large C-terminal segment, and several hydrophobic regions thought to multiply(More)
In the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), vocalization was elicited by periaqueductal injections of the glutamate agonist homocysteic acid, the acetylcholine agonist carbachol, the GABA antagonist bicuculline and the monoaminergic transmitter histamine. All chemically induced vocalizations could be blocked completely by prior periaqueductal injections of(More)