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Many species of stomatopod crustaceans have multiple spectral classes of photoreceptors in their retinas. Behavioral evidence also indicates that stomatopods are capable of discriminating objects by their spectral differences alone. Most animals use only two to four different types of photoreceptors in their color vision systems, typically with broad(More)
Multispectral images of natural scenes were collected from both forests and coral reefs to represent typical, complex scenes that might be viewed by modern animals. Both reflectance spectra and modeled visual color signals in these scenes were decorrelated spectrally by principal-component analysis. Nearly 98% of the variance of reflectance spectra and(More)
We describe illumination spectra in forests and show that they can be accurately recovered from recorded digital video images. Natural illuminant spectra of 238 samples measured in temperate forests were characterized by principal-component analysis. The spectra can be accurately approximated by the mean and the first two principal components. Compared with(More)
Oral application of fluoride for caries prevention may tend to form calcium fluoride (CaF 2) instead of the desired fluorapatite. In view of this, the transformability of CaF2 to fluorapatite has been studied. This investigation shows that CaF2 can be converted to fluorapatite in phosphate solutions ar various temperatures ranging between 25 and 75 degrees(More)
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